Fascia, vessels and nerves of the upper limb


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Fascia, vessels and nerves of the upper limb



Introduction to the skeletal system

Introduction to the muscular system

Bones of the neck

Bones of the vertebral column

Joints of the vertebral column

Vessels and nerves of the vertebral column

Bones of the upper limb

Fascia, vessels and nerves of the upper limb

Anatomy of the brachial plexus

Anatomy of the pectoral and scapular regions

Anatomy of the arm

Muscles of the forearm

Vessels and nerves of the forearm

Muscles of the hand

Anatomy of the sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints

Anatomy of the glenohumeral joint

Anatomy of the elbow joint

Anatomy of the radioulnar joints

Joints of the wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Bones of the lower limb

Fascia, vessels, and nerves of the lower limb

Anatomy of the anterior and medial thigh

Muscles of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Vessels and nerves of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Anatomy of the popliteal fossa

Anatomy of the leg

Anatomy of the foot

Anatomy of the hip joint

Anatomy of the knee joint

Anatomy of the tibiofibular joints

Joints of the ankle and foot

Development of the axial skeleton

Development of the limbs

Development of the muscular system

Bone histology

Cartilage histology

Skeletal muscle histology

Skeletal system anatomy and physiology

Bone remodeling and repair

Cartilage structure and growth

Fibrous, cartilage, and synovial joints

Muscular system anatomy and physiology

Brachial plexus

Neuromuscular junction and motor unit

Sliding filament model of muscle contraction

Slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers

Muscle contraction

Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)

Developmental dysplasia of the hip

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Transient synovitis

Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)

Rotator cuff tear

Dislocated shoulder

Winged scapula

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Ulnar claw

Erb-Duchenne palsy

Klumpke paralysis

Iliotibial band syndrome

Unhappy triad

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

Patellar tendon rupture

Meniscus tear

Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Sprained ankle

Achilles tendon rupture



Degenerative disc disease

Spinal disc herniation


Compartment syndrome


Osteogenesis imperfecta


Pectus excavatum


Genu valgum

Genu varum

Pigeon toe

Flat feet

Club foot

Cleidocranial dysplasia



Bone tumors




Osteomalacia and rickets


Paget disease of bone


Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis



Spinal stenosis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis


Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)

Psoriatic arthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Reactive arthritis


Septic arthritis


Baker cyst

Muscular dystrophy



Inclusion body myopathy

Polymyalgia rheumatica



Myasthenia gravis

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Sjogren syndrome

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Mixed connective tissue disease

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Raynaud phenomenon


Back pain: Pathology review

Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review

Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review

Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review

Scleroderma: Pathology review

Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review

Bone disorders: Pathology review

Bone tumors: Pathology review

Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review

Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review

Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Osteoporosis medications



Evode Iradufasha, MD

Jerry Ferro

Ursula Florjanczyk, MScBMC

The upper limb contains an intricate metro system of blood vessels, muscles, and nerves.

These structures are wrapped up and organized into different compartments by superficial and deep fascia layers, and together they form the multifunctional upper limbs we know and love.

So let’s start with the fascia. You can think of fascia as a pair of thin stockings made of connective tissue that support and bind together different parts of the body, including the lower limbs.

Now, each upper limb actually has two pairs of stockings on top of each other: the superficial fascia, which sits right underneath our skin, and the deep fascia, which is deep to or beneath the superficial fascia, and it sits on top of muscles, organizing them into compartments.

In the upper limb, there are six fasciae to remember. We have the pectoral fascia, the clavipectoral fascia, the axillary fascia, the deltoid fascia, the brachial fascia, and antebrachial fascia.

The wrist and the hand also have fibrous band-like structures called the flexor retinaculum, the extensor retinaculum, and the palmar aponeurosis.

OK, let’s start with the pectoral fascia, which is a broad thin sheath of connective tissue surrounding the pectoralis major muscle, from which it gets its name. Medially, the pectoral fascia is attached to the sternum along with the pectoralis major’s origin.

Superiorly, it attaches to the clavicle, and superolaterally, this fascia passes over this narrow trench called the deltopectoral groove to blend with the deltoid fascia covering the deltoid muscle around the shoulder.


Fascia is a type of connective tissue that surrounds muscles, organs, and other structures in the body. It provides support and protection and helps to keep everything in its place. The upper limbs have superficial and deep fascia layers.

Superficial fascia is the closest layer to the skin, while deep fascia lies beneath it. The superficial fascia provides insulation, cushion and passageway of vessels and nerves and blood vessels, whereas the deep fascia envelopes and organizes muscles into compartments.


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