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Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Autism spectrum disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Body dysmorphic disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Moment to Moment: Growing Up with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Characteristics and Clinical Features
fetal alcohol syndrome p. 304
fetal alcohol syndrome p. 635
in fetal alcohol syndrome p. 636
holoprosencephaly in p. 501
Fetal alcohol syndrome, or FAS, occurs because of maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy.
It’s currently the leading cause of intellectual disability in the US and can cause characteristic physical abnormalities.
Normally, the fetus is connected to the placenta by the umbilical cord, so the fetus gets oxygen and nutrients from the mother.
Unfortunately, ethanol and toxic alcohol metabolites like acetaldehyde also pass freely through the placenta, but the fetal liver doesn’t have the necessary enzymes to metabolize them, so they build up inside the fetus really fast.
In FAS, ethanol interferes with cell division and proliferation, cell growth and differentiation, and with the migration of mature cells to their final location in the developing embryo, which affects the development of various fetal tissues, including the brain.
Alcohol-induced brain damage includes partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, which links the two hemispheres together, so it either forms incompletely, or not at all.
This causes intellectual disability and seizures.
When the frontal cortex and the hippocampus are affected, this causes poor memory and communication skills, as well as intellectual disability.
The cerebellum can also be smaller in size, called hypoplasia, leading to trouble with movement and balance.
The most common symptom of FAS is growth retardation, resulting in low height and weight.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term describing the range of effects that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASD can include physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities.
There is no safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and drinking any amount can cause FASD. FASD is 100% preventable if women don't drink alcohol during pregnancy. If a woman does drink alcohol during pregnancy, there is no way to know for sure how her child will be affected.
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