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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
for fibromyalgia p. 476
fibromyalgia p. 476
The term fibromyalgia can be broken down. Fibro- refers to fibrous tissue, -my- refers to muscle and -algia refers to pain.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition, which occurs more often in women, that causes widespread muscle pain, extreme tenderness in various parts of the body, and sleep disturbances.
Normally, if a person cuts their finger, a specific type of sensory neuron called a nociceptor or pain receptor, converts that stimulus into an electrical signal.
These are the first neurons and they’re primarily found in the skin, joints, or the walls of organs.
The electrical signal goes from the dendrite of the nociceptor into its peripheral axon branch and heads up the hand and arm towards its cell body.
The cell body is located in the dorsal root ganglion which is a cluster of nerve cell bodies located in a dorsal root of the spinal nerve.
The dorsal root ganglia contains the cell bodies of many sensory neurons that receive information.
So in this case, the cell body would receive the electrical signal, and if it’s strong enough, it would start to release substance P, which is a small chemical involved in pain perception.
Substance P would go down the other axon branch of the nociceptor and would get released from the neuron’s terminal button.
Substance P then binds to receptors on a second neuron which has its cell body located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which makes up the back portion of the spinal cord that receives sensory information.
There is also a separate group of neurons called inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord that dampen or reduce the pain response, counteracting the effect of nociceptors.
These inhibitory neurons release neurotransmitters such as serotonin and norepinephrine and they also act on the second neuron in the spinal cord to inhibit the pain signal.
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