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Bacterial structure and functions
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Bartonella henselae (Cat-scratch disease and Bacillary angiomatosis)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis/Whooping cough)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Borrelia species (Relapsing fever)
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
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animal transmission p. 147
Gram-negative algorithm p. 139
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative coccobacillus, which means that shape-wise, it’s somewhere between a spherical coccus and a rod-like bacillus.
In humans, it causes a zoonotic infection called tularemia, also called rabbit fever.
This bacteria is also considered a category A bioterrorism agent which means it is of highest concern for bioterrorism use, because of its low infectious dose and high associated mortality.
Now, Francisella tularensis has a thin peptidoglycan layer, so it doesn’t retain the crystal violet dye during Gram staining.
Instead, like any other Gram-negative bacteria, it stains pink with safranin dye.
Alright, now Francisella tularensis is non-motile, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular which means it can survive both outside and inside the cell and aerobic which means it can survive only in the presence of oxygen.
Also, it’s oxidase and urease negative which means it doesn’t produce these enzymes.
And Francisella tularensis really loves cysteine, so it only grows in about 47 to 72 hours on cysteine-enriched mediums like cysteine enriched chocolate agar, BCYE and CHAB.
Cysteine enriched chocolate agar, named so for its color, actually contains cysteine and lysed red blood cells - so no chocolate products were harmed in the making of this medium.
BCYE stands for buffered charcoal yeast extract, so it contains activated charcoal, yeast extract, and L-cysteine.
On these two mediums, Francisella tularensis forms round, grey-white colonies.
So first, Francisella tularensis is encapsulated, meaning it’s covered by a polysaccharide layer called a capsule.
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular coccobacillus, known to cause a zoonotic infection known as tularemia. Tularemia can be transmitted to humans by ticks, deer flies, rabbits, and deer flies.
Depending on the transmission route, tularemia has several forms, including ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, and pneumonic. The ulceroglandular form occurs when the bacteria enter through a break in the skin. The ulcer at the site of infection becomes swollen and painful, and may discharge pus. Glands near the ulcer may also become enlarged. Next, the oculoglandular form occurs when the bacteria are spread to the eyes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and pain in the eyes, photophobia, as well as swollen lymph nodes., Finally, the pneumonic form occurs when the bacteria are inhaled and resulting in pneumonia. Symptoms include fever, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
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