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Bacterial structure and functions
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Clostridium botulinum (Botulism)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Clostridium tetani (Tetanus)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis/Whooping cough)
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis)
Mycobacterium avium complex (NORD)
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Borrelia species (Relapsing fever)
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Ehrlichia and Anaplasma
Gardnerella vaginalis (Bacterial vaginosis)
Viral structure and functions
Varicella zoster virus
Epstein-Barr virus (Infectious mononucleosis)
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Herpes simplex virus
Human herpesvirus 6 (Roseola)
Poxvirus (Smallpox and Molluscum contagiosum)
BK virus (Hemorrhagic cystitis)
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus
Hepatitis D virus
Respiratory syncytial virus
Human parainfluenza viruses
Yellow fever virus
Hepatitis C virus
West Nile virus
Human T-lymphotropic virus
Eastern and Western equine encephalitis virus
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Prions (Spongiform encephalopathy)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
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animal transmission p. 147
Gram-negative algorithm p. 139
Alexandru Duhaniuc, MD
Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative coccobacillus, which means that shape-wise, it’s somewhere between a spherical coccus and a rod-like bacillus.
In humans, it causes a zoonotic infection called tularemia, also called rabbit fever.
This bacteria is also considered a category A bioterrorism agent which means it is of highest concern for bioterrorism use, because of its low infectious dose and high associated mortality.
Now, Francisella tularensis has a thin peptidoglycan layer, so it doesn’t retain the crystal violet dye during Gram staining.
Instead, like any other Gram-negative bacteria, it stains pink with safranin dye.
Alright, now Francisella tularensis is non-motile, non-spore forming, facultative intracellular which means it can survive both outside and inside the cell and aerobic which means it can survive only in the presence of oxygen.
Also, it’s oxidase and urease negative which means it doesn’t produce these enzymes.
Finally, Francisella tularensis is a fastidious bacteria which requires enriched medium for growth.
And Francisella tularensis really loves cysteine, so it only grows in about 47 to 72 hours on cysteine-enriched mediums like cysteine enriched chocolate agar, BCYE and CHAB.
Cysteine enriched chocolate agar, named so for its color, actually contains cysteine and lysed red blood cells - so no chocolate products were harmed in the making of this medium.
BCYE stands for buffered charcoal yeast extract, so it contains activated charcoal, yeast extract, and L-cysteine.
On these two mediums, Francisella tularensis forms round, grey-white colonies.
Finally, CHAB is a glucose cysteine agar that contains thiamine and blood, and on CHAB, Francisella tularensis forms greenish-white, round, smooth, mucoid colonies.
Now, Francisella tularensis has a number of virulence factors, that are like assault weaponry that help it attack and destroy the host cells, and evade the immune system.
So first, Francisella tularensis is encapsulated, meaning it’s covered by a polysaccharide layer called a capsule.
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular coccobacillus, known to cause a zoonotic infection known as tularemia. Tularemia can be transmitted to humans by ticks, deer flies, rabbits, and deer flies.
Depending on the transmission route, tularemia has several forms, including ulceroglandular, oculoglandular, and pneumonic. The ulceroglandular form occurs when the bacteria enter through a break in the skin. The ulcer at the site of infection becomes swollen and painful, and may discharge pus. Glands near the ulcer may also become enlarged. Next, the oculoglandular form occurs when the bacteria are spread to the eyes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and pain in the eyes, photophobia, as well as swollen lymph nodes., Finally, the pneumonic form occurs when the bacteria are inhaled and resulting in pneumonia. Symptoms include fever, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
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