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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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When tissues are inflamed and irritated, they usually regenerate by cell division and laying down new protein. Tissues are mostly cells and protein after all.
Now each time a cell divides, there’s a chance that something will go wrong - a mistake will happen, and a normal gene will mutate.
If this happens with genes involved in cell replication itself, then you might have a cell that continues to divide out of control.
This is why tissues that are constantly subject to irritation and inflammation (especially tissues that are not used to it and typically don’t have as much cell division happening) are more likely to develop tumors, and the gallbladder’s no exception.
About three-quarters of patients that develop gallbladder cancer have cholesterol gallstones, and having gallstones in general is thought to increase the risk of gallbladder cancer significantly. Why is that though?
Well gallstones are known to induce inflammation of the glandular tissue along the gallbladder walls, also known as cholecystitis.
Over time, this constant state of inflammation and cell turnover increases the risk of a genetic mistakes and mutations, potentially leading to a carcinogenesis, or cancer formation.
If these cells do become carcinogenic, they proliferate and start forming a mass of these defective tumor cells in the glandular tissue of the gallbladder, which is why we can call it gallbladder adeno-carcinoma, or cancer of the glandular tissue.
With chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, the risk for carcinogenesis increases more and more over time, and that chronic inflammation of the gallbladder leads to calcification and fibrosis, a condition known as porcelain gallbladder.
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