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Organ system histology
Arteriole, venule and capillary histology
Artery and vein histology
Cardiac muscle histology
Adrenal gland histology
Pituitary gland histology
Thyroid and parathyroid gland histology
Eye and ear histology
Nasal cavity and larynx histology
Small intestine histology
Lymph node histology
Skeletal muscle histology
Central nervous system histology
Peripheral nervous system histology
Ureter, bladder and urethra histology
Cervix and vagina histology
Fallopian tube and uterus histology
Mammary gland histology
Prostate gland histology
Testis, ductus deferens, and seminal vesicle histology
Bronchioles and alveoli histology
Trachea and bronchi histology
The gallbladder is a muscular pear-shaped storage sac attached to the lower surface of the liver.
In addition to being able to store about 50 mL of bile, it also concentrates the bile before secreting it into the duodenum after meals.
Bile is produced by the liver and secreted into a network of intrahepatic bile ducts before reaching the common hepatic duct.
The common hepatic duct then connects with the cystic duct, which allows the bile to flow into the gallbladder.
When the gallbladder contracts, bile is pushed back out of the gallbladder through the cystic duct and flows into the common bile duct, which joins with the main pancreatic duct before emptying into the duodenum.
Focusing on the gallbladder, at low magnification the gallbladder wall has three main layers: the inner mucosa, tunica muscularis, and its outer layer of connective tissue called the external adventitia or serosa.
If we first take a closer look at the mucosa, we can see that the mucosa has many mucosal folds or rugae, but they’re not long enough to be considered villi.
Some of the folds of the mucosa are deep enough to form the appearance of cross-bridges when seen under a microscope, such as the two in this image.
If we increase the magnification to 40x, we can see that the mucosal epithelium is lined with simple columnar cells that are overlying the lamina propria, which contains dense irregular connective tissue, many immune cells, and small capillaries.
The gallbladder’s mucosal folds may look similar to portions of the intestine but can be distinguished by the gallbladder’s lack of intestinal crypts at the base of the mucosal folds.
In the bottom left of this image, we can see a portion of the next layer underneath the mucosa, called the tunica muscularis.
Here we can see more of the tunica muscularis or the muscular layer of the gallbladder.
The muscles in this layer are grouped in bundles of smooth muscle, but they are actually randomly oriented.
The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ that sits just below the liver on the right side of the abdomen. The gallbladder's main function is to store bile, a fluid that helps digest fat. The gallbladder has three main layers: the mucosa consisting of the simple columnar epithelium; the tunica muscularis consisting of randomly oriented smooth muscles; and the outer connective tissue, referred to as serosa or adventitia.
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