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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
0 / 11 complete
0 / 7 complete
Gallstones (Part 1/2)
Gallstones (Part 2/2)
cholelithiasis and p. 403
in cholelithiasis p. 403
gallstones p. 375
cholelithiasis p. 403
acute pancreatitis p. 403
bile ducts and p. 375
biliary cirrhosis and p. 403
Crohn disease p. 389
hyperbilirubinemia and p. 400
octreotide and p. 407
somatostatinomas p. 355
gallstone p. 403
When you eat some real fatty foods, like say some delicious french fries, they make their way to through the stomach and into the small intestine. At this point they aren’t really french fries anymore, but since they’re high in fat, they’re still a little more difficult to absorb, and that’s where your gallbladder comes in.
This high fat food stimulates the gallbladder to squeeze out some bile into the small intestine, that bile emulsifies the fat, or basically mixes the fat up, and makes it easier to absorb.
This is pretty much your gallbladder’s job—store and concentrate bile until the time comes to send it to the small intestine. It’s not the most glamorous of jobs, but hey, gotta start somewhere.
If we take a closer look at this magical substance, we’d get a rough breakdown that’s something like the following: ~70% bile salts and acids, ~10% cholesterol ~5% phospholipids, ~5% proteins, and 1% conjugated bilirubin, and the rest, small amounts of various other compounds like water, electrolytes, and bicarbonate.
Bile salts and acids are mostly a product of cholesterol metabolism, so an acid might look something like this and its salt is the anionic form, something like this (ROO-) group.
These acids and their salts have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sides, making them amphiphilic, which help them make cholesterol and fat in the gut more soluble in bile.
The phospholipids are mostly lecithin, also amphiphilic, and also help make cholesterol and fats more soluble in bile.
Gall-stones are these round and solid stones you can find inside your gallbladder, and they’re made from the components of bile, and so they’re categorized depending on what they’re made of, the most common ones are cholesterol stones, but there’s also bilirubin stones, which are sometimes called pigmented stones.
The first type, as you might guess, are made mostly of cholesterol that has precipitated out of the bile as a solid and formed these solid stones. These account for around 75 to 90% of cases.
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