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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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Gastric Dysmotility & Cancer
stomach cancer p. 386
carcinogens causing p. 221
metastases of p. 222
oncogenes and p. 220
oncogenic microbes and p. 222
sign of Leser-Trélat and p. 219
trastuzumab for p. 446
types of p. 386
stomach cancer and p. 386
stomach cancer as cause p. 386
gastric cancer p. 386
Gastric cancer is when malignant or cancerous cells arise in the stomach.
This cancer can appear in any part of the stomach and it’s classified into adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, carcinoid tumor, and leiomyosarcoma; depending on the type of cells it originates from.
Adeno- means gland; so, adenocarcinoma arises from columnar glandular epithelium.
Lymphoma arises from lymphocytes.
Carcinoid tumor is originated in the G-cells of the stomach.
And leiomyosarcoma arises from smooth muscle cells from the gastric wall.
Gastric cancer is generally considered a poor prognosis cancer, because it doesn't cause specific symptoms until later stages.
The stomach has four regions: the cardia, the fundus, the body, and the pyloric antrum.
There’s also a pyloric sphincter or valve at the end of the stomach, which closes while eating, keeping food inside for the stomach to digest.
Now, the gastric wall is made up of four layers: from the outside in, there’s the adventitia, or serosa; the muscular layer; the submucosa; and the mucosa.
The mucosa comes into direct contact with food, and it also has three layers of its own.
The innermost layer is the epithelial layer and it absorbs and secretes mucus and digestive enzymes.
The middle layer is the lamina propria and it has blood, lymph vessels, and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, or MALT for short, which are nodules of immune cells called lymphocytes, in charge of eliminating pathogens that could pass through the epithelial layer.
The outermost layer of the mucosa is the muscularis mucosa, and it’s a layer of smooth muscle that contracts and helps with the break down food.
The epithelial layer dips down below the surface of the stomach lining to form gastric pits.
And these pits are contiguous with gastric glands below which contain various epithelial cell types, each secreting a variety of substances.
So for example, foveolar cells, or surface mucus cells, secrete mucus, which is a mix of water and glycoproteins that coats the stomach epithelial cells.
With all of these digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid floating around, the stomach and duodenal mucosa would get digested if not for this mucus which coats and protects the epithelial cells.
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