00:00 / 00:00
Eyes, ears, nose, and throat
Conductive hearing loss
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Tympanic membrane perforation
Age-related macular degeneration
Retinopathy of prematurity
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
0 / 7 complete
0 / 3 complete
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Structural Esophageal Disorders & GERD
esophageal pathology and p. 384
H2 blockers for p. 405
proton pump inhibitors for p. 406
gastroesophageal reflux disease p. 384
esophageal cancer and p. 385
presentation p. 384
Gastro- refers to the stomach, esophageal stands for esophagus, and reflux means “to flow back”.
So gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is when stomach acid flows back into the esophagus.
The presence of acid in the esophagus can lead to Barrett’s esophagus, a serious complication of GERD where the normal mucosa of the esophagus is replaced by one that’s similar to that of the intestines.
Barrett’s esophagus poses a higher risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Normally, the wall of the entire gastrointestinal tract is made of 4 layers: the inner mucosa, the submucosa, a muscular layer, and an outer layer called the adventitia.
The mucosa is further divided into three layers - an innermost epithelial layer, a middle layer called the lamina propria, and an outermost layer, in contact with the submucosa, called the muscularis mucosae, which is made up of smooth muscle that contracts and helps with the breakdown of food.
Now, the stomach mucosa is different from the esophageal mucosa.
Inside the stomach, the epithelial layer is made up of cylindrical cells, which dive into the lamina propria, forming pits.
These pits are the gastric glands, and there are many of them scattered throughout the stomach.
Distributed among the cylindrical gland cells, there’s different types of secretory cells.
First, there’s G cells, which are a type of neuroendocrine cells that secrete a hormone called gastrin in response to food entering the stomach.
Gastrin stimulates another type of cells, the parietal cells, to release hydrochloric acid.
And then, there’s chief cells, which secrete an enzyme called pepsinogen.
Hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen are useful for digestion, but they can be quite aggressive for the delicate mucosa.
Luckily though, the stomach also has some defense mechanism in place.
First, the gastric glands also have foveolar cells, also called surface mucus cells, because they are closer to the surface of the stomach, and they secrete mucus.
Mucus is mostly made up of water and glycoproteins, and also bicarbonate ions which are also secreted by foveolar cells.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.