Gastrointestinal hormones


Gastrointestinal hormones


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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

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Gastrointestinal hormones

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A researcher is performing a histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Several cell types are identified and studied. The researchers isolate a group of cells called S cells, which are found in the duodenum. These cells produce a hormone that exerts the following effects?


Gastrointestinal hormones are released by the digestive system and have various functions. Some of these hormones include:

Secretin: secreted by the S cells in the small intestine, regulates gastrin and pancreatic enzyme secretion. Cholecystokinin: recreated by the small intestine, promotes gallbladder contraction and regulates nutrient-stimulated enzyme secretion. Insulin: secreted by the pancreas (B cells of the pancreatic islets), reduces blood's glucose levels. Glucagon: secreted by the pancreas (A cells of the pancreatic islets), increases blood glucose levels. Ghrelin: released by the stomach and increases hunger Leptin: released by fat cells, decreases hunger Somatostatin: inhibits the release of some other hormones such as gastrin, growth hormone, prolactin, and insulin. Gastrin: secreted by the G cells in the stomach and duodenum, stimulates gastric acid and pancreatic enzyme secretion. Pancreatic peptide: secreted by the pancreas, slows down small intestine motility. Peptide Y: secreted by the pancreas (islets alpha cells), inhibits the release of pancreatic enzymes.


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