Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides include hormones, paracrines and neurocrines. The hormones include gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Paracrines include a peptidic one – somatostatin – and a nonpeptidic one – histamine. Among the neurocrines, there are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, nitric oxide, gastrin-releasing peptide – also known as bombesin –, enkephalins, neuropeptide Y and substance P. They modulate the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, regulate its motility, and coordinate the digestion and absorption process.
Summary of Gastrointestinal hormones
Anatomy and physiology
Gastrointestinal tract motility
Digestion and absorption
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