Germ cell ovarian tumor


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Germ cell ovarian tumor


Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Amenorrhea: Pathology Review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review


Germ cell ovarian tumor


0 / 7 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

13 pages


Germ cell ovarian tumor

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 10-year-old girl is brought to the emergency department because of abdominal pain and vomiting for the past hour. Temperature is 37°C (98.6°F), pulse is 105/min, and blood pressure is 102/58 mmHg. Leukocyte count is normal. A CT scan of the abdomen reveals a right ovarian mass. She subsequently undergoes laparoscopic unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A histopathological analysis is performed and the results are shown below:

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Which of the following tumor markers should be used to monitor the response to treatment?  


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Yifan Xiao, MD

Tanner Marshall, MS

With germ cell ovarian cancer, germ cell refers to the precursor cells that develop into eggs, ovarian refers to ovary which is where the germ cells live, of which there are two that sit on either side of the uterus.

So, a germ cell ovarian cancer refers to situations where these precursor germ cells become cancerous and form tumors.

During fetal development, the entire body derives from three layers, called germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

These germ layers are made of germ cells, and the germ cells migrate out and differentiate into all of the different types of tissues, for example some ectodermal germ cells become cells of the brain and spinal cord, some mesodermal form bone and muscle, and some endodermal cells become cells in the gastrointestinal tract.

Some very special germ cells, however, remain as germ cells - meaning that they don’t differentiate, they remain pluripotent, meaning that unlike the cells that differentiate these germ cells retain their ability to turn into other cell types. They’re like ancient little shape-shifters.

Normally, during development these germ cells head to the ovary in women or testicle in men where they remain for decades, eventually developing into eggs or sperm, respectively.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw Hill Professional (2019)
  5. "Mucinous Tumors of the Ovary: Current Thoughts on Diagnosis and Management" Current Oncology Reports (2014)
  6. "A Systematic Review of Symptoms for the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer" American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2016)
  7. "Ovarian cancer" The Lancet (2014)
  8. "The Application and Outcome of Standard of Care Treatment in Elderly Women with Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review over the Last 10 Years" Frontiers in Oncology (2016)

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