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Gingivitis and periodontitis
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Broadly speaking, the two are on a spectrum starting with simple gingivitis on one end, and if the process doesn’t get treated, it can develop into more severe disease - periodontitis, which is on the other end of the spectrum.
Let's start by building a model of a tooth and its surrounding structures.
In the mouth, the bone beneath the bottom row of teeth is the mandible, and the bone above the top row of teeth is the maxilla.
The socket is lined on the inside by a periodontal ligament.
The tooth itself can be roughly divided into two parts.
The first part is the root, and it sits within the alveolus.
The root is covered by a bonelike substance called cementum, and that’s what the periodontal ligament’s fibers attach to.
Next, there’s a short zone called the neck, which is the transition between the root and the crown.
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