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Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Dental caries disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastric dumping syndrome
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Protein losing enteropathy
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Cholestatic liver disease
Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Benign liver tumors
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Gingivitis and periodontitis
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Tanner Marshall, MS
With gingivitis, gingiva refers to the gums, and -itis refers to inflammation, so gingivitis is inflammation of the gums.
With periodontitis, peri- means around, and odon-, refers to the tooth, so it’s inflammation and destruction of the supporting structures around the teeth.
Broadly speaking, the two are on a spectrum starting with simple gingivitis on one end, and if the process doesn’t get treated, it can develop into more severe disease - periodontitis, which is on the other end of the spectrum.
Let's start by building a model of a tooth and its surrounding structures.
In the mouth, the bone beneath the bottom row of teeth is the mandible, and the bone above the top row of teeth is the maxilla.
Both bones have an alveolus, or socket, for each tooth.
The socket is lined on the inside by a periodontal ligament.
Protecting the alveolus on the outside, is a layer of soft, supportive tissue called the gingiva, or gums, that sits on top of the bone.
The tooth itself can be roughly divided into two parts.
The first part is the root, and it sits within the alveolus.
The root is covered by a bonelike substance called cementum, and that’s what the periodontal ligament’s fibers attach to.
Next, there’s a short zone called the neck, which is the transition between the root and the crown.
The crown is the visible part of the tooth that protrudes from the gingiva, and it’s covered in enamel.
Enamel has such a high mineral content that it’s the hardest substance in the human body.
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