00:00 / 00:00
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
0 / 13 complete
0 / 2 complete
Guillain-Barre Syndrome-Mayo Clinic
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Assessment
Guillain-Barré & Charcot-Marie-Tooth
Guillain-Barré syndrome is named after two neurologists- Georges Guillain and Jean Barré, and it’s a demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all of the neurons that extend beyond the brain and the spinal cord.
Guillain-Barré, or GBS for short, is also called acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.
Neurons are made up of three main parts.
The dendrites, which are little branches that receive signals from other neurons, the soma or cell body, which has all of the neuron’s main organelles, and the axon, which transmits the signal to the next neuron in the series.
For peripheral nerves, the cell body can either be located in the spinal cord, where it’s called a spinal nerve, or the brain, where it’s called a cranial nerve.
Myelin is the protective sheath that surrounds the axons of the peripheral neurons, allowing them to quickly send electrical impulses.
This myelin is produced by Schwann cells, which are a group of cells that support neurons.
In Guillain-Barré syndrome, demyelination happens when the immune system inappropriately attacks and destroys the myelin, which makes communication between neurons break down, ultimately leading to all sorts of sensory, motor, and cognitive problems.
The cause of Guillain- Barré syndrome is unknown, but it’s known to develop after a bacterial infection, like Campylobacter jejuni and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or a viral infection, like cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus.
Specifically, some strains of Campylobacter jejuni have a particular kind of oligosaccharides on their membrane, that are identical to gangliosides found on the surface of motor neurons.
So as a result, immune cells mistakenly attack and destroy the gangliosides, damaging the neurons.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.