HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

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HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Reproductive system

Male and female reproductive system disorders

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Klinefelter syndrome

Turner syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Kallmann syndrome

Male reproductive system disorders

Hypospadias and epispadias

Bladder exstrophy


Penile cancer


Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Prostate cancer


Inguinal hernia




Testicular torsion

Testicular cancer

Erectile dysfunction

Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder

Female reproductive system disorders


Ovarian cyst

Premature ovarian failure

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Krukenberg tumor

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor

Surface epithelial-stromal tumor

Germ cell ovarian tumor

Uterine fibroid



Endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial cancer


Cervical cancer

Pelvic inflammatory disease


Female sexual interest and arousal disorder

Orgasmic dysfunction

Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder


Fibrocystic breast changes

Intraductal papilloma

Phyllodes tumor

Paget disease of the breast

Breast cancer

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Gestational hypertension

Preeclampsia & eclampsia

Gestational diabetes

Cervical incompetence

Placenta previa

Placenta accreta

Placental abruption



Potter sequence

Intrauterine growth restriction

Preterm labor

Postpartum hemorrhage


Congenital toxoplasmosis

Congenital cytomegalovirus (NORD)

Congenital syphilis

Neonatal conjunctivitis

Neonatal herpes simplex

Congenital rubella syndrome

Neonatal sepsis

Neonatal meningitis


Gestational trophoblastic disease

Ectopic pregnancy

Fetal hydantoin syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Reproductive system pathology review

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review

Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review

HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

Penile conditions: Pathology review

Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review

Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review

Testicular tumors: Pathology review

Uterine disorders: Pathology review

Ovarian cysts and tumors: Pathology review

Cervical cancer: Pathology review

Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review

Benign breast conditions: Pathology review

Breast cancer: Pathology review

Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review

Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review


HIV and AIDS: Pathology review

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 3 complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A group of researchers is studying cells resistant to infection by HIV. They notice there is a mutation in the protein CCR5 that confers immunity. Which of the following HIV proteins is unable to bind to host cells because of this mutation?  


Content Reviewers

Antonella Melani, MD


Marisa Pedron

Tina Collins

Elijah Lee, MScBMC

Victoria S. Recalde, MD

Two people come to the infectious disease clinic. The first one’s David, a 42 year old man who has a fever, associated with a cough and difficulty breathing. David mentions that he’s HIV-positive, so you decide to run a blood test, which reveals an alarming T cell count of 180 cells / mm3. You immediately ask for a chest X-ray, which shows gray hazy-looking areas in both lungs. Next comes Charles, a 32 year old man. Charles was referred to the clinic by his dentist, who detected white plaques on both sides of his tongue. When you try to scrape the plaques with a tongue depressor, you realize that they can’t be removed. Upon further questioning, Charles tells you that lately he’s been losing a ton of weight, although he hasn’t been exercising or dieting at all. You decide to ask for an HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody immunoassay, which turns out positive. Okay, now both David and Charles have HIV, which stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV specifically targets the cells of our immune system, leading to progressive immunodeficiency, which is when the immune system begins to fail gradually. Ultimately, affected individuals can develop AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. What’s important to note is that AIDS puts at increased risk of certain opportunistic infections or tumors that a healthy immune system would usually be able to fend off.

Now, HIV can be transmitted via certain bodily fluids from an infected person, including blood, genital fluids like semen or vaginal discharge, and breast milk. However, HIV is not present in saliva, sweat, urine, or feces. Now, to contract the infection, these bodily fluids need to come into direct contact with a healthy person's blood, broken skin, or mucosal surfaces.


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