00:00 / 00:00
Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature atrial contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Premature ventricular contraction
Rheumatic heart disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Transposition of the great vessels
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Aortic valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Tricuspid valve disease
Coronary steal syndrome
Polycystic kidney disease
Renal artery stenosis
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
0 / 8 complete
Heart Failure Interventions
Left Heart Failure Assessment
Right Heart Failure Assessment
Types of Heart Failure
On the cardiology ward, there were two people who had been admitted to the hospital repeatedly.
The first one is 70 year old Lidia, who had a myocardial infarction about 3 years ago.
She presents with fatigue, and dyspnea.
She says that she usually wakes up at night because of shortness of breath, but using more pillows when sleeping helps relieve it somewhat.
On examination, she has pitting edema in her legs and on auscultation, an S3 sound is heard.
The other person is 81 year old Richard who has been a smoker for the past 50 years.
He is also experiencing fatigue, and has pitting edema, but on further examination, there’s also jugular venous distention and hepatomegaly.
Okay, so, both these individuals suffer from heart failure.
Heart failure is a clinical syndrome used to describe the inability of the heart to pump enough blood or a point at which the heart can’t supply enough blood to meet the body’s demands.
This can happen in two ways, either the heart’s ventricles can’t pump blood hard enough during systole, called systolic heart failure, or not enough blood fills into the ventricles during diastole, called diastolic heart failure.
In both cases, blood backs up into the lungs, causing congestion or fluid buildup, which is why it’s also often known as congestive heart failure, or just CHF.
Alright, first up is systolic heart failure.
One way to think about this is that the heart needs to squeeze out a certain volume of blood each minute, called cardiac output, which can be calculated as the heart rate multiplied by the stroke volume.
The heart rate is pretty intuitive, but the stroke volume is a little tricky.
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