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Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review




0 / 21 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 2 complete

High Yield Notes

27 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 45-year-old man comes to his primary care provider for evaluation of fatigue, which began six months ago. He has felt more tired than usual and has had decreased libido over the same time period. The patient attributes these symptoms to recent stress at work as an attorney. Past medical history is noncontributory and he does not drink alcohol or smoke cigarettes. Temperature is 36.5°C (97.7°F), pulse is 60/min, respirations are 14/min, and blood pressure is 130/82 mm Hg. Physical examination shows diffuse hyperpigmentation of the skin. The liver is palpated 4 cm below the right costal margin. Mild testicular atrophy is noted. Laboratory testing reveals the following results:  

If untreated, this patient’s condition would most likely give rise to which of the following liver findings?  

External References

First Aid









hemochromatosis p. 404

Autosomal recessive disorders

hemochromatosis p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404

Chromosome abnormalities

hemochromatosis p. 404

Cirrhosis p. 398

hemochromatosis p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404

Diabetes mellitus p. 352-360

hemochromatosis p. 404

Dilated cardiomyopathy p. 317, 318, 481

hemochromatosis p. 404

Hemochromatosis p. 404

calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease p. 477

cardiomyopathy with p. 317

chromosome association p. 62

free radical injury p. 213

hepatocellular carcinoma and p. 401

HLA-A3 and p. 98

Hepatocellular carcinomas p. 401

hemochromatosis p. 404

HFE gene

hemochromatosis and p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404


hemochromatosis p. 404


in hemochromatosis p. 404


for hemochromatosis p. 404

Restrictive cardiomyopath

hemochromatosis p. 404


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Vincent Waldman, PhD

Tanner Marshall, MS

Hemochromatosis is a metabolic disorder where the body absorbs too much iron from the food you eat.

This accumulation of iron leads to elevated iron in the blood and poisoning of tissues in the liver, pancreas, heart, pituitary gland, joints and skin.

The root -chromat- actually refers to color or the darkening of the skin that happens when iron is deposited into it.

If we take a close look at our red blood cells, we’ll notice that they’re loaded with millions of copies of the same exact protein called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and turns our blood cells into little oxygen transporters, and basically allow us to move oxygen to all the tissues in our body.

If we take an even closer look at those hemoglobin proteins, we’ll find that they’re made of four heme molecules, which have, right in the middle, iron.

This iron molecule is what binds to oxygen, so without iron, we probably wouldn’t fare too well, right? Right.

Normally, you actually lose a small amount of iron every day, about 1 mg, some in the sweat, some in shedded skin cells, and some in shedded cells in the gastrointestinal tract.

Most of us, through the diet, take in 10-20 mg of iron every day, and absorb about 10% of that, so 1-2 mg, which is perfect!

People with hemochromatosis, though, absorb an unusually high amount of iron, sometimes as much as 4 mg per day, even though you probably only need about 1 mg to even out your losses, right?

You’d think that absorbing more of something is good, but in this case, a net gain of about 3 mg a day comes out to about 1 g per year of excess iron in your body, leading to more than 20 g by age 40!

Most of this iron you hold on to is deposited in your organs, most notably the liver, but also in your pancreas, your heart, joints, skin, and pituitary gland.

This process of depositing iron into organs is called hemosiderosis. But hey, a little hemosiderosis over the course of a lifetime never hurt anyone, right? Wrong!

Unfortunately, all this extra iron does start doing some serious damage because iron in the body is actually pretty good at generating free radicals through the fenton reaction.

The fenton reaction is where molecules of iron 2+ are oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, producing iron 3+ and the hydroxyl radical and hydroxide ion as byproducts; now, iron 3+ can then be reduced back to iron 2+ via hydrogen peroxide again, creating a peroxide radical and a proton, and then the cycle repeats, creating this like endless loop of free radical generation.


  1. "The transferrin receptor: the cellular iron gate" Metallomics (2017)
  2. "Diagnosis and Treatment of Genetic <i>HFE</i>-Hemochromatosis: The Danish Aspect" Gastroenterology Research (2019)
  3. "Genetics, Genetic Testing, and Management of Hemochromatosis: 15 Years Since Hepcidin" Gastroenterology (2015)
  4. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  5. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  6. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  7. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  8. "Diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis: 2011 Practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases" Hepatology (2011)
  9. "Screening for Hereditary Hemochromatosis: Recommendations from the American College of Physicians" Annals of Internal Medicine (2005)

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