00:00 / 00:00
Evolution and natural selection
Independent assortment of genes and linkage
Mendelian genetics and punnett squares
Alagille syndrome (NORD)
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Polycystic kidney disease
Treacher Collins syndrome
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Gaucher disease (NORD)
Glycogen storage disease type I
Glycogen storage disease type II (NORD)
Glycogen storage disease type III
Glycogen storage disease type IV
Glycogen storage disease type V
Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 1 (Hurler syndrome) (NORD)
Niemann-Pick disease type C
Niemann-Pick disease types A and B (NORD)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Tay-Sachs disease (NORD)
Cri du chat syndrome
Fragile X syndrome
Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)
Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)
Patau syndrome (Trisomy 13)
Fabry disease (NORD)
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Mucopolysaccharide storage disease type 2 (Hunter syndrome) (NORD)
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
0 / 12 complete
0 / 2 complete
Inherited Coagulation Defects
The word “hemophilia” is a combination of the Greek words for “blood” and “love”, a way of saying that people with hemophilia “love to bleed”, or rather that it’s hard to stop bleeding. This is because the process called hemostasis, literally meaning to stop the flow of blood, is impaired.
Normally, after a cut and damage to the endothelium, or the inner lining of blood vessel walls, there’s an immediate vasoconstriction or narrowing of the blood vessel which limits the amount of blood flow. After that some platelets adhere to the damaged vessel wall, and become activated and then recruit additional platelets to form a plug. The formation of the platelet plug is called primary hemostasis.
After that, the coagulation cascade is activated. First off in the blood there’s a set of clotting factors, most of which are proteins synthesized by the liver, and usually these are inactive and just floating around the blood. The coagulation cascade starts when one of these proteins gets proteolytically cleaved. This active protein then proteolytically cleaves and activates the next clotting factor, and so on. This cascade has a great degree of amplification and takes only a few minutes from injury to clot formation. The final step is activation of the protein fibrinogen to fibrin, which deposits and polymerizes to form a mesh around the platelets. So these steps leading up to fibrin reinforcement of the platelet plug make up the process called secondary hemostasis and results in a hard clot at the site of the injury.
In most cases of hemophilia there is a decrease in the amount or function of one or more of the clotting factors which makes secondary hemostasis less effective and allows more bleeding to happen.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.