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Gastrointestinal system

Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity disorders



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome


Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Barrett esophagus

Esophageal cancer


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

27 pages



of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 34-year-old woman at 23 weeks gestation presents to the obstetrician for routine follow up. She recently underwent perinatal screening and tested positive for hepatitis B. The pregnancy has otherwise been uncomplicated, and she has no other significant past medical history. During the visit, the patient asks, “How likely is it that I am going to give this disease to my baby?” Her hepatitis panel is demonstrated below:

Which of the following serologic markers indicates a high degree of transmissibility to the fetus?

External References

First Aid








Diabetes mellitus p. 352-360

hepatitis C p. 171

Hepatitis C (HCV)

characteristics of p. NaN

extrahepatic manifestations p. 170

flaviviruses p. 164

hepatocellular carcinoma and p. 401

lichen planus p. 496

as oncogenic microbe p. 223

therapy for p. 201

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

hepatitis C p. 170

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma p. 436, 437

hepatitis C p. 170


hepatitis C p. 201


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Hepatitis, meaning like this inflammation, of the liver, most commonly comes about because of a virus.

These viruses tend to target the cells in the liver, and when they get in and infect these cells, they tend to cause them to present these weird and abnormal proteins via their MHC class 1 molecules, and at the same time, you’ve also got these immune cells infiltrating the liver and trying to figure out what’s going on, and so the CD8 positive T cells recognize these abnormal proteins as a sign that the cells are pretty much toast, and the hepatocytes go through cytotoxic killing by the T cells and apoptosis.

Hepatocytes undergoing apoptosis are sometimes referred to as Councilman bodies, shown on histology here, and this typically takes place in the portal tracts and lobules of the liver.

This cytotoxic killing of hepatocytes is the main mechanism behind inflammation of the liver, and eventual liver damage in viral hepatitis!

As someone’s hepatitis progresses, we’ll see a couple classic symptoms related to your immune system mounting an attack, like fever, malaise, and nausea.

Additionally though, patients might have hepatomegaly, where their liver is abnormally large from inflammation, which might cause some pain.

Also, as more and more damage is done to the liver, the amount of transaminases in their blood will increase.

Your liver has these transaminase enzymes so it can do its job of breaking down various amino acids.

Typically the serum amino transaminase, or the amount in your blood, is pretty low, but when your hepatocytes start getting damaged they start leaking these into the blood, so a common sign is a greater amount of both alanine aminotransferase, or ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase, or AST, typically even though both are elevated, ALT will be greater than AST in viral hepatitis and will also be the last of the two liver enzymes to return to normal.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Hepatitis viruses: Not always what it seems to be" Revista médica de Chile (2010)
  6. "Viral hepatitis and liver cancer" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2017)

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