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Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Sickle cell disease (NORD)
Folate (Vitamin B9) deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Anemia of chronic disease
Iron deficiency anemia
Vitamin K deficiency
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
Essential thrombocythemia (NORD)
Polycythemia vera (NORD)
Acute intermittent porphyria
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Von Willebrand disease
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Antithrombin III deficiency
Factor V Leiden
Protein C deficiency
Protein S deficiency
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Heme synthesis disorders: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Myeloproliferative disorders: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Plasma cell disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Thrombosis syndromes (hypercoagulability): Pathology review
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Symptoms of Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma p. 434
bleomycin for p. 447
non-Hodgkin vs p. 434
oncogenic microbes and p. 222
paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and p. 219
types of p. 735
vinca alkaloids for p. 445
Hodgkin lymphoma vs p. 434
The term Hodgkin lymphoma -can be broken down. Lymph- refers to lymphocytes and oma- refers to a tumor.
So, Hodgkin lymphoma is a tumor derived from lymphocytes - specifically B-cells which mainly reside in lymph nodes.
In case you’re wondering, the disease gets its name from the English physician Thomas Hodgkin, who first described these tumors.
B-cell development begins in the bone marrow, which is a primary lymphoid organ.
That’s where young precursor B-cells mature into naive B-cells.
The naive B cells then leave the bone marrow and circulate in the blood and eventually settle down in lymph nodes.
Humans have hundreds of lymph nodes, scattered throughout the body, and they’re considered secondary lymphoid organs.
Each lymph node has B-cells which group together in follicles in the cortex or outer part of the lymph node, along with T-cells in the paracortex just below the cortex.
B-cells differentiate into plasma cells, which are found in the medulla or center of the lymph nodes.
Plasma cells release antibodies or immunoglobulins.
Antibodies bind to pathogens like viruses and bacteria, to help destroy or remove them.
Various immune cells, including B-cells have surface proteins or markers that are called CD, short for cluster of differentiation, along with a number - like CD19 or CD21.
In fact, the combination of surface proteins that are on an immune cell works a bit like an ID card.
Now, a B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that binds just perfectly to its surface immunoglobulin.
Some of these activated B-cells mature directly into plasma cells and produce IgM antibodies.
Other activated B-cells go to the center of a primary follicle in the lymph node and they differentiate into B-cells called centroblasts and start to quickly proliferate or divide.
Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system typically arising from B-cells. It is commonly seen in immunodeficient individuals, such as those with HIV, and is usually associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and painless and swollen cervical lymph nodes.
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