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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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horseshoe kidney and p. 599
Turner syndrome p. 727
horseshoe kidney p. 599
horseshoe kidney in p. 599
Horseshoe kidney, or sometimes renal fusion, is a congenital disorder where the two kidneys fuse together into one during fetal development, resulting in one large horseshoe-shaped kidney.
Normally during fetal development, the future kidneys develop in the pelvis as a structure called the metanephrose before finally migrating upward into the abdomen and becoming everyone’s favorite organ duo.
For people with horseshoe kidney, their kidneys fused together at some point during development, and there are two main working theories on how this might happen.
The first is mechanical fusion, which happens during the metanephros stage, which is around about the 5th week of gestation.
At this point, the two kidneys are still in the pelvis, and are therefore pretty close together, so close that it’s thought that some flexion or growth of the developing spine and pelvic organs essentially pushes them together, causing the lower or inferior poles of the kidneys to touch and fuse together, forming what’s called a fibrous isthmus, fibrous because it’s composed of connective tissue.
The other theory involves a teratogenic event. Teratogenic meaning something that disrupts fetal development in some way.
In this case it’s thought that the posterior nephrogenic cells, which are the cells that help to form part of the kidney, migrate and rendezvous in the wrong spot, and therefore again form an isthmus connecting the two kidneys, but this time since the isthmus is composed of kidney cells as opposed to connective tissue, it’s called a parenchymal isthmus.
Whichever one happens, now you’ve got this single, horseshoe-shaped kidney in the pelvis.
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