00:00 / 00:00
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Hydronephrosis & Urinary Tract Obstruction
hydronephrosis and p. 619
hydronephrosis in p. 619
hydronephrosis with p. 620
BPH p. 674
horseshoe kidney p. 599
kidney stones p. 624
posterior urethral valves p. 599
hydronephrosis p. 619
hydronephrosis p. 620
With hydronephrosis, -hydro means water, -nephro means kidneys, and -osis refers to a disease state, so hydronephrosis refers a disease or condition where excessive amounts of water, in the form of urine, causes the kidneys to dilate.
Now, normally, inside the kidneys, urine forms in the nephron and then drains through the papilla which is an inverted cone shaped pyramid, that, like a shower head, pours urine into the calyces, which comes from the latin -calix which means large cup, like a Roman chalice.
From there it enters the renal pelvis which funnels the urine into the ureter.
If there’s an obstruction to this normal flow of urine, then it can cause urinary pressures to increase and push out on the walls of these structures making them dilate. This might happen because of something within the urinary tract,for example, a kidney stone, or from external compression, for example, when a fetus pushes up against the urinary tract during pregnancy.
Typically the dilation starts closest to the site of the problem and then slowly continues back up towards the kidneys.
Now, if there’s dilation of just the ureter, it’s called hydroureter, but if there’s dilation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and the calyces, it’s called hydroureteronephrosis or more commonly just hydronephrosis.
The causes of hydronephrosis differ by age group.
Hydronephrosis in the fetus is called antenatal hydronephrosis, and sometimes the cause here is unknown, and it develops and disappears on its own, so it may be a variation of normal development. But if hydronephrosis progresses through fetal development into the third trimester, then there may be an actual underlying pathology. For example, there’s congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction, which is where the ureteropelvic junction—which connects the ureter to the kidney—fails to canalize during development, which can obstruct the flow of urine.
Another cause is vesicoureteral reflux which is where urine is allowed to backflow from the bladder into the ureters and eventually kidneys.
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