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Renal system

Renal and ureteral disorders

Renal agenesis

Horseshoe kidney

Potter sequence











Renal tubular acidosis

Minimal change disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)


Membranous nephropathy

Lupus nephritis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Goodpasture syndrome

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy (NORD)

Lupus nephritis

Alport syndrome

Kidney stones


Acute pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis

Prerenal azotemia

Renal azotemia

Acute tubular necrosis

Postrenal azotemia

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal cortical necrosis

Chronic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Medullary cystic kidney disease

Medullary sponge kidney

Renal artery stenosis

Renal cell carcinoma


Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)

WAGR syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Bladder and urethral disorders

Posterior urethral valves

Hypospadias and epispadias

Vesicoureteral reflux

Bladder exstrophy

Urinary incontinence

Neurogenic bladder

Lower urinary tract infection

Transitional cell carcinoma

Non-urothelial bladder cancers

Renal system pathology review

Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review

Renal tubular defects: Pathology review

Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review

Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review

Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review

Renal failure: Pathology review

Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review

Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

Urinary tract infections: Pathology review

Kidney stones: Pathology review

Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 30-year-old primigravida woman at 24 weeks of gestation comes to the office for a routine prenatal evaluation. The pregnancy has been uncomplicated, and she has been compliant with prenatal care. She takes vitamins as needed. Family and medical history are unremarkable. She did not have prior abortions or miscarriages. During ultrasound examination of the fetus, male external genitalia are visible, as well as bilateral hydronephrosis. An amniotic fluid index is equivocal. Which of the following is most likely the cause for the abnormal findings?  

External References

First Aid








Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) p. 678, 731

hydronephrosis and p. 623

BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia)

hydronephrosis in p. 623

Cervical cancer p. 669

hydronephrosis with p. 624

Hydronephrosis p. 623

BPH p. 678

horseshoe kidney p. 603

kidney stones p. 628

posterior urethral valves p. 603

Kidney stones p. 626

hydronephrosis p. 623

Renal medulla p. 604

hydronephrosis p. 624

Vesicoureteral reflux p. 603

hydronephrosis p. 624

External Links


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

With hydronephrosis, -hydro means water, -nephro means kidneys, and -osis refers to a disease state, so hydronephrosis refers a disease or condition where excessive amounts of water, in the form of urine, causes the kidneys to dilate.

Now, normally, inside the kidneys, urine forms in the nephron and then drains through the papilla which is an inverted cone shaped pyramid, that, like a shower head, pours urine into the calyces, which comes from the latin -calix which means large cup, like a Roman chalice.

From there it enters the renal pelvis which funnels the urine into the ureter.

If there’s an obstruction to this normal flow of urine, then it can cause urinary pressures to increase and push out on the walls of these structures making them dilate. This might happen because of something within the urinary tract,for example, a kidney stone, or from external compression, for example, when a fetus pushes up against the urinary tract during pregnancy.

Typically the dilation starts closest to the site of the problem and then slowly continues back up towards the kidneys.

Now, if there’s dilation of just the ureter, it’s called hydroureter, but if there’s dilation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and the calyces, it’s called hydroureteronephrosis or more commonly just hydronephrosis.

The causes of hydronephrosis differ by age group.

Hydronephrosis in the fetus is called antenatal hydronephrosis, and sometimes the cause here is unknown, and it develops and disappears on its own, so it may be a variation of normal development. But if hydronephrosis progresses through fetal development into the third trimester, then there may be an actual underlying pathology. For example, there’s congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction, which is where the ureteropelvic junction—which connects the ureter to the kidney—fails to canalize during development, which can obstruct the flow of urine.

Another cause is vesicoureteral reflux which is where urine is allowed to backflow from the bladder into the ureters and eventually kidneys.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Hydronephrosis in the course of ureteropelvic junction obstruction - an underestimated problem?Current opinion on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment." Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine (2017)
  6. "Congenital Anomalies of Kidney and Urinary Tract" Seminars in Nephrology (2010)
  7. "Prenatal hydronephrosis: early evaluation" Current Opinion in Urology (2008)

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