00:00 / 00:00
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
0 / 17 complete
0 / 3 complete
Calcium (Ca2+) Lab Value
hypercalcemia p. 611
hypercalcemia and p. 611
hypercalcemia and p. 219
acute pancreatitis and p. 404
adult T-cell lymphoma p. 435
bisphosphonates for p. 495
calcium carbonate in p. 406
diabetes insipidus p. 349
granulomatous diseases and p. NaN
hyperparathyroidism p. 342
loop diuretics for p. 628
lung cancer p. 705
paraneoplastic syndrome p. 219
PTH-independent p. 348
sarcoidosis and p. 697
succinylcholine p. 567
teriparatide p. 496
thiazides as cause p. 629
Williams syndrome p. 62
With hypercalcemia, hyper -means over and -calc- refers to calcium, and -emia refers to the blood, so hypercalcemia means higher than normal calcium levels in the blood, generally over 10.5 mg/dL.
Now, calcium exists as an ion with a double positive charge - Ca2+ - and it’s the most abundant metal in the human body.
So I know what you’re thinking - yeah, we’re all pretty much cyborgs,- Cool, huh?
So about 99% of that calcium is in our bones in the form of calcium phosphate, also called hydroxyapatite.
The last 1% is split so that the majority, about 0.99% is extracellular - which means in the blood and in the interstitial space between cells, and 0.01% is intracellular or inside cells.
High levels of intracellular calcium causes cells to die.
In fact, that’s exactly what happens during apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death.
For that reason, cells end up spending a lot of energy just keeping their intracellular calcium levels low.
Now, calcium gets into the cell through two types of channels, or cell doors, within the cell membrane.
The first type are ligand-gated channels, which are what most cells use to let calcium in, and are primarily controlled by hormones or neurotransmitters.
The second type are voltage-gated channels, which are mostly found in muscle and nerve cells and are primarily controlled by changes in the electrical membrane potential.
So calcium flows in through these channels, and to prevent calcium levels from rising too high, cells kick excess calcium right back out with ATP-dependent calcium pumps as well as Na+-Ca2+ exchangers.
In addition, most of the intracellular calcium is stored within organelles like the mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and is released selectively just when it's needed.
Now, the majority of the extracellular calcium is split almost equally between two groups - calcium that is diffusible and calcium that is not diffusible.
Diffusible calcium is separated into two subcategories: free-ionized calcium, which is involved in all sorts of cellular processes like neuronal action potentials, contraction of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation, all of which are tightly regulated by enzymes and hormones.
The other category is complexed calcium, which is where the positively charged calcium is ionically linked to tiny negatively charged molecules like oxalate, which is a small anions that’s normally found in our blood in small amounts.
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