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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
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Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
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Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Sodium (Na+) Lab Value
Osmolality & Sodium Disorders
With hypernatremia, hyper- means high, and -natrium is latin for sodium, often shortened to Na+, and -emia refers to the blood, so hypernatremia means a higher than normal concentration of sodium in the blood, generally above 145 mEq/L.
The concentration of sodium depends on both sodium and water levels in the body.
About 60% of our body weight comes from just water, and it basically sits in two places or fluid compartments—it either outside the cells in the extracellular fluid or inside the cells in the intracellular fluid.
The extracellular fluid includes the fluid in blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and the interstitial space, which is the space between cells that is filled with proteins and carbohydrates.
One third of the water in the body is in the extracellular compartment, wheres two thirds of it is in the intracellular compartment.
Normally, the two compartments have the same osmolarity -- total solute concentration -- and that allows water to move freely between the two spaces.But the exact composition of solutes differs quite a bit.
The most common cation in the extracellular compartment is sodium, whereas in the intracellular compartment it’s potassium and magnesium.
The most common anion in the extracellular compartment is chloride, whereas in the intracellular compartment it’s phosphate and negatively charged proteins.
Of all of these, sodium is the ion the flits back and forth across cell membranes, and subtle changes in sodium concentration tilts the osmolarity balance in one direction or another and that moves water. This is why we say “wherever salt goes, water flows”.
So with hypernatremia, someone can have a high concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid and therefore the blood, by either losing more water than sodium, or gaining more sodium than water. Either way this increases the sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid, draws water out of the cells.
When hypernatremia develops over a long period of time, the cells get time to adapt and they start generating osmotically active particle, which ends up preventing water from being lost via osmosis.
Hypernatremia is a condition where the blood sodium levels are too high, specifically above 145 mEq/L. Having proper blood sodium levels is essential for the conduction of nerve impulses and the balance of water and minerals in the body. When the levels are too high, it can cause dehydration, seizures, coma, and even death.
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