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Renal system

Renal and ureteral disorders

Renal agenesis

Horseshoe kidney

Potter sequence











Renal tubular acidosis

Minimal change disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)


Membranous nephropathy

Lupus nephritis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Goodpasture syndrome

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy (NORD)

Lupus nephritis

Alport syndrome

Kidney stones


Acute pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis

Prerenal azotemia

Renal azotemia

Acute tubular necrosis

Postrenal azotemia

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal cortical necrosis

Chronic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Medullary cystic kidney disease

Medullary sponge kidney

Renal artery stenosis

Renal cell carcinoma


Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)

WAGR syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Bladder and urethral disorders

Posterior urethral valves

Hypospadias and epispadias

Vesicoureteral reflux

Bladder exstrophy

Urinary incontinence

Neurogenic bladder

Lower urinary tract infection

Transitional cell carcinoma

Non-urothelial bladder cancers

Renal system pathology review

Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review

Renal tubular defects: Pathology review

Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review

Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review

Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review

Renal failure: Pathology review

Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review

Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

Urinary tract infections: Pathology review

Kidney stones: Pathology review

Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

4 pages



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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 2-year-old boy presents to the emergency department due to persistent vomiting and diarrhea over the past week. His parent states, “He just cannot seem to keep anything down, whenever I feed him he just vomits it right back up.” The patient attends daycare, and his parent is unsure of any sick contacts. He is otherwise healthy, vaccines are up to date, and birth history was uncomplicated. Temperature is 37.5°C (99.5°F), pulse is 160/min, respirations are 26/min, blood pressure is 84/40 mmHg, and O2 saturation is 96% on room air. On physical exam the patient is crying but consolable and is noted to have diminished tear production. Which of the following best describes the most likely electrolyte abnormality present?  

External References

First Aid








Hypernatremia p. 615


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Yifan Xiao, MD

Tanner Marshall, MS

With hypernatremia, hyper- means high, and -natrium is latin for sodium, often shortened to Na+, and -emia refers to the blood, so hypernatremia means a higher than normal concentration of sodium in the blood, generally above 145 mEq/L.

The concentration of sodium depends on both sodium and water levels in the body.

About 60% of our body weight comes from just water, and it basically sits in two places or fluid compartments—it either outside the cells in the extracellular fluid or inside the cells in the intracellular fluid.

The extracellular fluid includes the fluid in blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and the interstitial space, which is the space between cells that is filled with proteins and carbohydrates.

One third of the water in the body is in the extracellular compartment, wheres two thirds of it is in the intracellular compartment.

Normally, the two compartments have the same osmolarity -- total solute concentration -- and that allows water to move freely between the two spaces.But the exact composition of solutes differs quite a bit.

The most common cation in the extracellular compartment is sodium, whereas in the intracellular compartment it’s potassium and magnesium.

The most common anion in the extracellular compartment is chloride, whereas in the intracellular compartment it’s phosphate and negatively charged proteins.

Of all of these, sodium is the ion the flits back and forth across cell membranes, and subtle changes in sodium concentration tilts the osmolarity balance in one direction or another and that moves water. This is why we say “wherever salt goes, water flows”.

So with hypernatremia, someone can have a high concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid and therefore the blood, by either losing more water than sodium, or gaining more sodium than water. Either way this increases the sodium concentration in the extracellular fluid, draws water out of the cells.

When hypernatremia develops over a long period of time, the cells get time to adapt and they start generating osmotically active particle, which ends up preventing water from being lost via osmosis.


Hypernatremia is a condition where the blood sodium levels are too high, specifically above 145 mEq/L. Having proper blood sodium levels is essential for the conduction of nerve impulses and the balance of water and minerals in the body. When the levels are too high, it can cause dehydration, seizures, coma, and even death.


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