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Vascular disorders

Arterial disease

Angina pectoris

Stable angina

Unstable angina

Myocardial infarction

Prinzmetal angina

Coronary steal syndrome

Peripheral artery disease

Subclavian steal syndrome


Aortic dissection


Behcet's disease

Kawasaki disease


Hypertensive emergency

Renal artery stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome


Polycystic kidney disease


Orthostatic hypotension


Familial hypercholesterolemia



Chronic venous insufficiency


Deep vein thrombosis




Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Congenital heart defects

Truncus arteriosus

Transposition of the great vessels

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Tetralogy of Fallot

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Patent ductus arteriosus

Ventricular septal defect

Coarctation of the aorta

Atrial septal defect

Cardiac arrhythmias

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation

Premature atrial contraction

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Ventricular tachycardia

Brugada syndrome

Premature ventricular contraction

Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes

Ventricular fibrillation

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pulseless electrical activity

Valvular disorders

Tricuspid valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease


Dilated cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Heart failure

Heart failure

Cor pulmonale

Cardiac infections



Rheumatic heart disease

Pericardial disorders

Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade

Dressler syndrome

Cardiac tumors

Cardiac tumors

Cardiovascular system pathology review

Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review

Heart failure: Pathology review

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Endocarditis: Pathology review

Hypertension: Pathology review

Shock: Pathology review

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review



USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 1 complete

High Yield Notes

7 pages


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 26-year-old man is evaluated in the emergency department for epigastric pain that began an hour ago. He reports that the pain radiates to the back and is 9 out of 10 in severity. The patient consumes a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables. He drinks 2-3 glasses of wine per week on social occasions. Family history is notable for recurrent episodes of pancreatitis in his father and paternal uncle. His temperature is 37.7°C (99.9°F), blood pressure is 125/83 mmHg, and pulse is 96/min. Physical examination is notable for tenderness on light palpation of the epigastric region. Abdominal exam also reveals hepatosplenomegaly and the following finding:  

Reproduced from: Wikimedia Commons  

Xanthomas are found on the patient’s bilateral elbows. Which of the following set of laboratory findings would be most likely expected in this patient?  


Content Reviewers

Viviana Popa, MD


Alex Aranda

David G. Walker

Zachary Kevorkian, MSMI

With Hypertriglyceridemia, hyper means high, -emia refers to blood levels, and triglycerides are the most abundant fatty molecules in an organism.

So, hypertriglyceridemia is when there’s excess triglycerides in the blood.

Specifically, hypertriglyceridemia is when there are more than 150 mg of triglycerides per deciliter of blood.

Triglycerides can be deposited in subcutaneous tissue and around organs and function as energy storage in the body.

We can either get triglycerides from our diet, which are called exogenous triglycerides; or our liver can synthesize them from other molecules, in which case they’re called endogenous triglycerides.

Now, exogenous triglycerides are first absorbed in the small intestine, and then they undergo a series of changes in order to be transported and deposited in the body.

So, after triglycerides are absorbed, they enter the intestinal mucosal cells, inside of which they’re coupled with various apolipoproteins and phospholipids to create chylomicrons, which are one type of lipoprotein.

Lipoproteins are made up of lipids (like triglycerides or cholesterol) or phospholipids and proteins (like apolipoproteins CII, CIII, or E).

The main job of lipoproteins is to carry insoluble molecules, like triglycerides, from the intestines to the circulation.

That's because, normally, triglycerides are insoluble in liquid environments like blood.

Now, the newly created chylomicrons enter the bloodstream and bind to the wall of capillaries in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue.

At the binding site, they interact with the lipoprotein lipase enzyme leading to the breakdown of the triglyceride core and liberation of free fatty acids directly into the adipocytes or skeletal muscle cell, where they’re either stored or used for energy.

After triglycerides leave the chylomicron, what’s left is called a remnant chylomicron.

Remnant chylomicrons are high in cholesterol esters and they’re cleared from circulation by the liver when the apolipoprotein E binds to Apo-B100/E receptor on the hepatic cell membrane.


Hypertriglyceridemia is a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. If individuals' serum triglyceride concentrations are above 150 mg/dL, they are considered hypertriglyceridemia. High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with a high risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. There are many different causes of hypertriglyceridemia, including genetics, obesity, eating too much processed or unhealthy foods, not getting enough exercise, smoking cigarettes, and drinking alcohol.


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  2. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  3. "Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology" Saunders W.B. (2018)
  4. "Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking" LWW (2016)
  5. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  6. "Hypertriglyceridemia: its etiology, effects and treatment" Canadian Medical Association Journal (2007)
  7. "Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline" The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2012)
  8. "Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis: Presentation and Management" The American Journal of Gastroenterology (2009)

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