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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Primary adrenal insufficiency
Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Thyroid eye disease (NORD)
Toxic multinodular goiter
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
Growth hormone deficiency
Constitutional growth delay
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
Premature ovarian failure
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
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hypopituitarism as cause p. 345
hypopituitarism from p. 345
hypopituitarism p. 345
hypopituitarism with p. 351
for hypopituitarism p. 351
for hypopituitarism p. 345
hypopituitarism and p. 351
hypopituitarism p. 351
Brittany Norton, MFA
Sam Gillespie, BSc
Tanner Marshall, MS
With hypopituitarism, “hypo” means under and “pituitarism” refers to the pituitary gland which normally secretes various endocrine hormones.
So hypopituitarism is the underproduction of hormones released by the pituitary gland, and the symptoms depend on which hormones are actually undersecreted.
If all of the pituitary hormones are affected, it’s called panhypopituitarism.
The pituitary is a pea-sized gland, hanging by a stalk from the base of the brain.
It sits just behind the eyes near the optic chiasm, which is where the optic nerves cross and the gland rests in a very small depression of the skull known as the sella turcica.
The pituitary gland produces and secretes hormones when it receives signals from another part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
Together, they form the hypothalamic-pituitary axis which regulates the release of all the major endocrine hormones.
The pituitary itself has two distinct parts: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary.
The anterior pituitary, which is the front of the pituitary gland, contains a few different types of cells, each of which secretes a different hormone.
The largest group of cells are the somatotropes which secrete growth hormone, which goes on to promote tissue and organ growth.
The second largest cell group are the corticotrophs which secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH, which stimulates the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol, a hormone that controls the stress response, blood pressure, and metabolic regulation.
Hypopituitarism refers to the underproduction of any of the hormones released by the pituitary gland. If all of the pituitary hormones are underproduced, it's called panhypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism can be caused by tumors, pituitary hemorrhage or infarction, or accidental damage during radiation or surgery. Symptoms vary greatly depending on which hormones are impacted. Common symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, depression, low blood pressure, and problems with sexual function.
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