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Major depressive disorder
Seasonal affective disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Body dysmorphic disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Autism spectrum disorder
Shaken baby syndrome
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
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AChE inhibitors p. 569
barbiturates for p. 566
benzodiazepines p. 566
marijuana withdrawal p. 595
nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics p. 567
stimulants causing p. 594
Tanner Marshall, MS
Have you ever had one of those nights where you just can’t seem to fall asleep?
While that happens to everyone every occasionally, people with insomnia have to deal with these symptoms night after night.
Some people with insomnia have trouble falling asleep, whereas others wake up throughout the night, and struggle to fall back asleep.
These disturbances typically happen at least 3 times each week.
Acute insomnia lasts less than a month, whereas chronic insomnia lasts over a month.
Insomnia affects both the quantity and quality of sleep, which makes it hard for individuals to reach restorative levels of sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and over time, feelings of irritability, anxiety, and depression.
This can cause professional and personal problems, as make day-to-day activities like driving more challenging and dangerous, with people struggling to stay awake on the road.
Although insomnia can happen without an underlying cause, it can also accompany and worsen other problems like pulmonary diseases, psychiatric conditions, and a whole variety of conditions that might cause pain.
Insomnia is also a common side effect of stimulants like caffeine, as well as depressants like alcohol, which can both disrupt the regular sleep cycle.
Finally, and probably most commonly, insomnia can be the result of daily stresses from work or relationships as well environmental factors such as having to work a night shift, or having a newborn baby.
There are a number of biological factors associated with insomnia.
Studies have shown that people with insomnia might have heightened levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which plays a role in the process of waking up every morning.
People with insomnia are also more sensitive to the effects of cortisol, typically waking up at much lower levels of cortisol compared to the general population.
Additionally, insomnia is also associated with reduced levels of estrogen and reduced levels of progesterone, which can happen during menopause.
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