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Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)
Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)
Viral hepatitis: Clinical (To be retired)
Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)
Meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscesses: Clinical (To be retired)
Bites and stings: Clinical (To be retired)
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
Integrase and entry inhibitors
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Miscellaneous antifungal medications
Anti-mite and louse medications
Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro, MSMI, CMI
Jahnavi Narayanan, MBBS
Entry inhibitors and integrase inhibitors are groups of medications that are used in HAART, or highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is the combination of medications used in the treatment of AIDS.
AIDS is caused by a retrovirus called human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV.
Entry inhibitors act by preventing the binding of HIV to the CD4+ cell receptors, thereby preventing its entry into the cell.
Integrase inhibitors inhibit the viral integrase enzyme, which is needed to incorporate the HIV proviral DNA into the host cell DNA.
HIV is a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA retrovirus that targets cells in the immune system that have a molecule called CD4 on their membrane.
These include macrophages, dendritic cells, and especially CD4+ T-helper cells.
Normally, the CD4 molecule helps these cells attach to and activate other immune cells when there’s an infection.
HIV has 2 proteins, gp120 and gp41 that form a complex on its envelope, which it uses to attach to the CD4 molecules.
Next, it uses this complex to attach to a co-receptor on the immune cell before it can gain entry.
The most common co-receptor that HIV binds to the CXCR4 co-receptor on T-cells; or the CCR5 co-receptor found on T-cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells.
When HIV binds to the CD4 and the co-receptors, the viral envelope fuses with the cell membrane of the immune cell, releasing its single-stranded RNA and some viral enzymes, like reverse transcriptase and integrase into the helpless host cell’s cytoplasm.
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