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Alcohol-induced liver disease
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Benign liver tumors
Cholestatic liver disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Familial adenomatous polyposis
Juvenile polyposis syndrome
Small bowel ischemia and infarction
Protein losing enteropathy
Short bowel syndrome (NORD)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Irritable bowel syndrome
Cleft lip and palate
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Diffuse esophageal spasm
Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Gastric dumping syndrome
Dental caries disease
Gingivitis and periodontitis
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Cirrhosis: Pathology review
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Esophageal disorders: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Viral hepatitis: Pathology review
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intestinal atresia p. 366
With intestinal atresia, atresia refers to a passageway that’s closed or gone completely, so intestinal atresia is when a malformation during fetal development results an absent portion of the small or large intestine.
If instead the passageway was just narrowed, then it’s referred to as intestinal stenosis—oftentimes these are both just lumped together as intestinal atresia and stenosis.
The specific type of intestinal atresia is named depending on what section of the intestines is affected.
Duodenal atresia or stenosis is where the first section—the duodenum—is affected.
The underlying cause of duodenal atresia isn’t known, although it’s commonly associated with trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, suggesting that it’s likely due to genetic defects affecting normal development.
Although it isn’t known why intestinal atresia develops isn’t known, it is fairly well known how it develops.
Normally, early on in development, the gut’s a hollow tube.
But by around 6 weeks gestation, the epithelium of the duodenum proliferates and it ends up plugging up the lumen making it a completely solid stick of tissue.
After that, the cells in the middle undergo apoptosis, or programmed cell death, and by 9 weeks gestation, the tube’s hollow again, called recanalization.
This entire process is called vacuolation.
In duodenal atresia, this vacuolation process fails, and the duodenum doesn’t recanalize properly, resulting in atresia or stenosis of the duodenum.
Non-duodenal intestinal atresias or stenoses, like those affecting the jejunum or ileum, or even affected the large intestine like the colon, are generally not a result of recanalization, and instead are more likely to result from ischemic injury, meaning lack of bloodflow, to the developing gut.
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