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Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Transient ischemic attack
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Shaken baby syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Restless legs syndrome
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Central pontine myelinolysis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Adult brain tumors
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Pediatric brain tumors
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Spinal muscular atrophy
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
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Filip Vasiljević, MD
Evan Debevec-McKenneyVincent Waldman, PhD
There are two main types of stroke: a hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when an artery ruptures and bleeds within the brain, and an ischemic stroke, which occurs when an artery gets blocked.
Hemorrhagic strokes can be further split into two types, an intracerebral hemorrhage which is when bleeding occurs within the cerebrum, and a subarachnoid hemorrhage which is when bleeding occurs between the pia mater and arachnoid mater of the meninges - the inner and middle layers that wrap around the brain.
We’ll be focusing on intracerebral hemorrhages which are more common.
An intracerebral hemorrhage that involves just the brain tissue is called an intraparenchymal hemorrhage, whereas if the blood extends into the ventricles of the brain which store cerebrospinal fluid, it’s called an intraventricular hemorrhage.
OK - let’s start with some basic brain anatomy. The brain has a few regions - the most obvious is the cerebrum, which is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, each of which has a cortex - an outer region - divided into four lobes including the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and the occipital lobe.
There are also a number of additional structures - including the cerebellum, which is down below, as well as the brainstem which connects to the spinal cord.
The right cerebrum controls muscles on the left side of your body and vice versa.
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