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Isolated primary immunoglobulin M deficiency
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Let’s take a look at how B cells end up secreting different types of antibodies.
An antigen is any substance recognized by that particular antibody.
Each antibody has two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains that combine into a Y shape.
So this Y-shaped antibody’s got two arms with identical tips, which is called the variable region.
This variable region contains an antigen binding domain that’s unique to that antibody.
Below the variable region, or toward the point where the arms meet, is the constant region where every member of an antibody class is identical – so all IgM antibodies have the same constant regions, but IgM and IgA constant regions are different.
They’re secreted as a pentamer, meaning there are five antibodies connected together, which provides many binding sites for grabbing antigens and taking them out of the blood.
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