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Gastrointestinal system

Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity disorders



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 6-day-old female is brought to the pediatrician by her parents for evaluation of jaundice. She was born at 36 weeks gestation to a 29-year-old, gravida 1 para 1, woman via an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. According to her parents, the patient has had difficulty latching to her mother’s breast. The patient has passed meconium and produces 3-4 wet diapers per day. In the office, she is fussy but consolable. Physical examination shows depressed anterior and posterior fontanelles. Scleral icterus and jaundice of the head and chest are observed. Cardiac, pulmonary, and abdominal exams are noncontributory. Which of the following best describes the pathophysiology of this patient’s condition?  

External References

First Aid









jaundice with p. 402

Jaundice p. 402

alcoholic cirrhosis and p. 401

biliary tract disease p. 404

cholangitis p. 377, 404

cirrhosis p. 398

Crigler-Najjar syndrome p. 718

as drug reaction p. 250

fructose intolerance p. 78

galactosemia p. 78

graft-versus-host disease p. 117

hepatitis B p. 180

hepatocellular carcinoma p. 401

hereditary hyperbilirubinemias p. 403

leptospirosis p. 145

newborn hemolytic disease p. 416

painless p. 717

pancreatic cancer p. 404

ToRCHeS infections p. 181

transfusion reaction p. 112

yellow fever p. 165


jaundice in p. 402

Obstructive jaundice p. 407

Phototherapy for jaundice p. 402


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Jaundice, which doesn’t have the most intuitive name, comes from the french jaunice, meaning yellowing.

It’s also sometimes referred to as icterus though, the origin of which is even less intuitive, coming from the thought that jaundice could once be cured by looking at a yellow bird, the more you know!

Anyways, as you’ve probably gathered, jaundice involves someone taking on yellow pigments, specifically in the skin and eyes.

The yellowing pigment is caused by a compound called bilirubin, a component of bile and the main cause of bruises being yellow, and after its metabolism, the yellow-ness of urine and brown-ness of feces.

So since bilirubin’s our main culprit of yellow-ness, it’s super important to know where it comes from.

As red blood cells near the end of their lifespan—which is about 120 days—they’re eaten up or phagocytosed by macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system, aka the macrophage system, where the spleen plays the largest part, but it’s also made of parts of the lymph nodes.

K so first the macrophage eats up the blood cell, and hemoglobin is broken up into heme and globin, the globin is further broken into amino acids.

The heme on the other hand is split into iron and protoporphyrin, protoporphyrin is then converted into unconjugated bilirubin, or UCB.

Unconjugated bilirubin is the form of bilirubin that’s lipid-soluble, meaning it’s not water-soluble, sometimes it’s also known as indirect bilirubin.

Albumin in the blood then binds to UCB and gives it a lift over to the liver where it’s taken up by hepatocytes, where it’s conjugated by an enzyme called uridine glucuronyl transferase (UGT), making it now water soluble.

At this point the conjugated bilirubin is secreted out the bile canaliculi where it drains into the bile ducts and sent to the gallbladder for storage as bile.

Now when you eat a donut or something, your gallbladder secretes the bile and CB, it moves through the common bile duct to the duodenum of the small intestine and is converted to urobilinogen, or UBG, by intestinal microbes in the gut.


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  2. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  3. "Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology" Saunders W.B. (2018)
  4. "Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking" LWW (2016)
  5. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  6. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  7. "A Systematic Approach to Patients with Jaundice" Seminars in Interventional Radiology (2016)
  8. "Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia and Early Childhood Caries in a Diverse Group of Neonates" American Journal of Perinatology (2009)
  9. "Jaundice in Older Children and Adolescents" Pediatrics In Review (2001)

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