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Adrenal cortical carcinoma
Primary adrenal insufficiency
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome
Premature ovarian failure
Constitutional growth delay
Growth hormone deficiency
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Thyroid eye disease (NORD)
Toxic multinodular goiter
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review
Hypopituitarism: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review
Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review
Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review
Pituitary tumors: Pathology review
Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review
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I Have Kallmann Syndrome
Kallmann syndrome p. NaN
Kallmann syndrome p. 658
Kallmann syndrome and p. 658
Kallmann syndrome is an endocrine disorder caused by a decrease in sex hormones, either testosterone in males or estrogen and progesterone in females. That decrease leads to a failure to start or complete puberty.
The syndrome is named after Dr. Franz Kallmann, the geneticist who first described it.
Normally, during fetal development there’s a region of the brain called the olfactory placode. Two groups of neurons emerge from that region.
The first group contains olfactory neurons that eventually help with sensing smells.
These neurons migrate down from the olfactory placode and get embedded in the cribriform plate, which is a bone plate that separates the nasal cavity from the brain, forming the olfactory bulb.
The second group contains neurons that release gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
And these neurons migrate through the cribriform plate, and settle in the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is a system of hormone signaling between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads, either the testes or ovaries, to control sexual development and reproduction.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released into the hypophyseal portal system, which is a network of capillaries connecting the hypothalamus to the hypophysis, or pituitary.
When gonadotropin-releasing hormone reaches the pituitary gland, it stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary, called gonadotrophs, to release gonadotropin hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood.
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