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Kidney stones: Clinical
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They appear when solutes in the urine precipitate and crystalize. Depending on which solute precipitates to form the stone, there can be calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine, and struvite stones.
Risk factors for developing kidney stones depend on their composition.
Risk factors for calcium oxalate stones include high urine calcium, high urine oxalate, low urine citrate, and dietary factors include low calcium, low potassium, and low fluid intake, as well as a high oxalate, and a high animal protein intake.
Finally, struvite stones, also called staghorn calculi, are made up of magnesium ammonium phosphate, and the main risk factor is a urinary tract infection with a bacterium that produces urease - like Proteus and Klebsiella. These bacteria increase urine pH, making it a favorable environment for magnesium ammonium phosphate to precipitate.
Sometimes, kidney stones can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during an ultrasound or a CT-scan.
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