00:00 / 00:00
Back to the Basic Sciences
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Kidneys, ureters and suprarenal glands
Renal system anatomy and physiology
Renal failure: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall
Anatomy clinical correlates: Inguinal region
Anatomy clinical correlates: Peritoneum and diaphragm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Viscera of the gastrointestinal tract
Anatomy clinical correlates: Other abdominal organs
Appendicitis: Pathology review
Complications during pregnancy: Pathology review
Diverticular disease: Pathology review
Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pancreatitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Cervical cancer: Pathology review
Uterine disorders: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart
Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Pleura and lungs
Anatomy clinical correlates: Thoracic wall
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia
Pigmentation skin disorders: Pathology review
Skin cancer: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine
Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology
Enteric nervous system
Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review
Laxatives and cathartics
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Hypothyroidism: Pathology review
Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation
Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Anatomy clinical correlates: Facial (CN VII) and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Vertigo: Pathology review
ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement
ECG normal sinus rhythm
ECG QRS transition
ECG rate and rhythm
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Vaginitis and cervicitis: Pathology review
Sexually transmitted infections: Warts and ulcers: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior blood supply to the brain
Anatomy clinical correlates: Temporal regions, oral cavity and nose
Headaches: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm
Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, fascia and muscles of the neck
Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back
Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder
Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot
Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh
Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee
Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle
Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves
Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Vertebral canal
Back pain: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
Penile conditions: Pathology review
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
Testicular tumors: Pathology review
Anatomy clinical correlates: Eye
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Retinal disorders: Pathology review
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anatomy clinical correlates: Ear
Vaginal and vulvar disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
0 / 5 complete
Nephrolithiasis Diagnosis and Management
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 1/2)
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 2/2)
Renal Calculi Assessment
Renal Calculi Interventions
In the Emergency Department, two people with similar symptoms came in.
One of them is 35 year old Conrad who has a terrible left flank pain, along with nausea and vomiting and the other one is 40 year old Sam who has left flank pain, but also has dysuria.
An electrolyte panel and urinalysis was done in both individuals.
Results showed that Conrad had normal levels of calcium in the blood, but urinalysis showed hypercalciuria and hematuria.
Sam’s urinalysis showed positive leukocyte esterase, as well as positive nitrites and hematuria. Abdominal CT showed radiopaque masses in their ureters.
Now, the suspicion is that both individuals have kidney stones, but there are actually several types of kidney stones and we need to know what we’re dealing with in order to give the right treatment.
Okay, let’s first talk about how kidney stones form.
Urine’s a combination of water, which acts as a solvent, and all sorts of particles, or solutes.
In general, when certain solutes become too concentrated in the solvent, they become supersaturated.
Urinary supersaturation of certain solutes results in precipitation out of the solution and formation of crystals.
Those crystals then act as a nidus, or place where more solutes can deposit and over time it builds up a crystalline structure.
This can happen if there’s an increase in the solute, or a decrease in the solvent, as would be the case with dehydration.
This means that dehydration leads to a low urine volume which can further put a person at risk for kidney stones.
Okay, let’s now talk about the different types of stones.
There are four main types of stones.
Calcium stones are present in about 80 percent of the cases, while struvite stones are present in about 15 percent of the cases and uric acid stones are present in about 5 percent of the cases.
Finally, a super rare type of stone is a cysteine stone.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.