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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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I GOT KIDNEY STONES! OUCH!
Nephrolithiasis Diagnosis and Management
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 1/2)
Nephrolithiasis Stone Types (Part 2/2)
Renal Calculi Assessment
Renal Calculi Interventions
Calcium oxalate stones & Calcium phosphate stones
Magnesium Ammonium, Phosphate (MAP) Stones, Uric Acid Stones, & Cystine Stones
kidney stones p. 624
kidney stones and p. 624
kidney stones p. 622
Crohn disease association p. 389
electrolyte disturbances p. 611
hematuria with p. 614
horseshoe kidney and p. 599
hydronephrosis p. 619
hyperparathyroidism p. 342
postrenal azotemia p. 622
risk factors for p. 613
UTIs p. 179
calcium oxalate p. 67
With nephrolithiasis, “nephro-” refers to the kidneys, and “-lithiasis” means stone, so nephrolithiasis means kidney stones, sometimes also referred to as renal calculi or urolithiasis.
Kidney stones form when solutes in the urine precipitate out and crystalize, and although these most commonly form in the kidneys themselves, they can also form in the ureters, the bladder, or the urethra.
Now, urine’s a combination of water, which acts as a solvent, and all sorts of particles, or solutes.
In general, when certain solutes become too concentrated in the solvent, they become supersaturated.
Urinary supersaturation of certain solutes results in precipitation out of the solution and formation of crystals.
Those crystals then act as a nidus, or place where more solutes can deposit and over time it builds up a crystalline structure.
This can happen if there’s an increase in the solute, or a decrease in the solvent, as would be the case with dehydration.
In addition, there are substances like magnesium and citrate that inhibit crystal growth and aggregation, preventing kidney stones from forming in the first place.
In the majority of cases, the inorganic precipitate is calcium oxalate, formed by a positively charged calcium ion binding to a negatively charged oxalate ion, which results in a black or dark brown colored stone that is radio-opaque on an Xray, meaning that it shows up as a white spot.
Sometimes, instead of oxalate, the calcium binds a negatively charged phosphate group to form calcium phosphate stones which are dirty white in color and also radiopaque on an X-ray.
Calcium oxalate crystals are more likely to form in acidic urine, whereas calcium phosphate crystals are more likely to form in alkaline urine.
The exact reason why these stones form is usually unknown, but there are some known risk factors like hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, having too much calcium in the blood and urine, respectively.
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