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Major depressive disorder
Seasonal affective disorder
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Generalized anxiety disorder
Social anxiety disorder
Body focused repetitive disorders
Body dysmorphic disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Physical and sexual abuse
Cluster A personality disorders
Cluster B personality disorders
Cluster C personality disorders
Somatic symptom disorder
Alcohol use disorder
Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder
Female sexual interest and arousal disorder
Genito-pelvic pain and penetration disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Autism spectrum disorder
Shaken baby syndrome
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
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Tanner Marshall, MS
The DSM-5 defines specific learning disorders as a set of disorders that relate to having difficulty learning and developing certain skills for at least 6 months.
First, there’s dyslexia, which is difficulty with reading, then there’s dysgraphia, which is difficulty with writing, and finally there’s dyscalculia, which is difficulty with mathematics.
People can have difficulty with just one of those activities, but they can also have problems in all three areas.
These disorders are considered specific learning disorders because they don’t stem from another condition like an intellectual disorder or a global developmental delay, and they aren’t due to an obvious environmental cause like not being taught how to read, write, or do math.
Learning disorders are usually diagnosed during the school-aged years, when a child’s skill can be assessed and is found to fall significantly below the average of other children in their age group.
Dyslexia affects both oral and written communication throughout an individual’s life.
People with dyslexia often have trouble identifying letters or words, and this can result in slow, inaccurate, and effortful reading.
This often becomes obvious when a person with dyslexia is reading aloud, because they might have to hesitate or guess at words, and they might end up reading without normal intonation or expression.
Dyslexia can also cause difficulty with spelling because a person might add or omit letters by mistake.
Having to go through all of this extra effort with reading means that people with dyslexia might also have a hard time understanding what they’ve read, missing the deeper meaning of a passage, forgetting the correct sequence of events, or being unable to make inferences about what they’ve read.
Dysgraphia describes having trouble with writing: specifically, poor spelling and difficulty with grammar.
People with dysgraphia often have poor handwriting, even though they don’t have trouble with other fine motor skills, like, for example, using tweezers.
They might mix print and cursive writing, or might misuse upper and lowercase letters; as a result, their writing is often slow and labored, causing them to get writing fatigue.
Dysgraphia can also involve more global writing problems like having difficulty putting thoughts down on paper, or thinking and writing at the same time, which, as you might guess, leads to writing that lacks clarity and cohesion.
Finally, there’s dyscalculia.
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