AssessmentsLipid-lowering medications: Statins
Lipid-lowering medications: Statins
Content Reviewers:Yifan Xiao, MD
They are an incredibly important class of medications because they’ve been shown to decrease complications associated with cardiovascular disease like strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular disease.
To fix this, our body makes shipping boxes called lipoproteins.
These containers consist of a shell made of phospholipids and protein tags that act as instructions for their destination.
It begins with 2 acetyl-CoA molecules getting joined together by the enzyme acetyl-CoA acyl-transferase.
The result is a 4-carbon molecule called acetoacetyl-CoA.
Next, the enzyme HMG-CoA synthase combines acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA to form a 6-carbon molecule called 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA, or HMG-CoA.
Then, an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase reduces HMG-CoA into mevalonate.
This step with HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis.
In other words, the rate of this reaction determines the overall rate of cholesterol synthesis, it’s like the slowest step of an assembly line in a factory.
Mevalonate is the precursor molecule that will eventually become cholesterol.
Okay, in the liver, cholesterol and a lot of triglycerides are packed into the next kind of lipoproteins called very-low-density lipoproteins or VLDL, which are smaller and more dense than chylomicrons.
This package is sent into the bloodstream and carry the energy-rich triglycerides to the rest of the body.
Now, after unloading their triglycerides, the VLDL and the remaining cholesterol become a new kind of lipoprotein, called a low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, which are even smaller and more dense than VLDL.
The final lipoprotein is the HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, which are smaller but denser than LDLs. These are like the boxes you get when you try to return an item you bought online.
In this case, the liver produces HDL and released them into the blood, where they pick up excess cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and brings them back to the liver.
So in essence, it’s the opposite of LDL, which carries cholesterol from the liver to the peripheral tissues.
So, if we have too much LDL, we get cholesterol build up in these tissues.
One of the most clinically relevant tissues is the endothelium that lines the blood vessels.
Increased cholesterol here will lead to the formation of fatty deposits called plaques, and these will increase the risk of cardiovascular complications like strokes, myocardial infarctions, and peripheral vascular disease.
Okay! So, statins are a group of medications that are used to prevent these complications.
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