Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)


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Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Antihistamines for allergies


Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypercholesterolemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Hypersensitivity skin reactions: Clinical (To be retired)

Eczematous rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Papulosquamous skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Alopecia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypopigmentation skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Benign hyperpigmented skin lesions: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Dizziness and vertigo: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Breast cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Anemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications

Infectious diseases

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Chronic kidney disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

PDE5 inhibitors

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Migraine medications

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Lung cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Antihistamines for allergies

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatoid arthritis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

Osteoporosis medications


Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

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USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 32-year-old woman comes to her primary care physician for an annual visit. She is feeling well and has no acute complaints. The patient’s mother recently had a spinal compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis. The patient is concerned that she may develop the same condition later in life. Temperature is 37.5°C (99.5°F), blood pressure is 122/78 mmHg, pulse is 67/min, and BMI 20 kg/m2. Which of the following interventions will be most useful in reducing this patient’s risk of developing osteoporosis?

Memory Anchors and Partner Content


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Sam Gillespie, BSc

Evan Debevec-McKenney

Back pain can originate from the spinal cord, the nerve roots, the vertebral column, the surrounding muscles and ligaments, or even extra-spinal structures such as abdominal organs.

Most lower back pain is considered non-specific musculoskeletal back pain, and is due to strained muscles and ligaments in the back. But sometimes it’s due to a specific disorder, and these can be categorized into 6 groups: degenerative disorders, mechanical disorders such as disk herniation and lumbar spinal stenosis, infections such as osteomyelitis and spinal epidural abscess, spinal epidural hematoma, inflammatory disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, and cancers, such as multiple myeloma.

Specific disorders are often identified with a thorough history, and to help remember some common clues there’s the mnemonic: “TUNA FISH”.

“T” is for trauma. “U” is for unexplained weight loss, which may suggest a cancer. “N” is for neurological symptoms, like sensory loss, pain, or weakness in the legs, loss of sensation in the perineal area - which is called saddle anesthesia - as well as bowel, bladder, or sexual dysfunction.

“A” is for age over 50, which increases the risk of cancer.

“F” is for fever, which may indicate an infection.

“I” is for intravenous drug use or an immunocompromised state, both of which also increase the risk of infection.

“S” is for steroid use, which can cause secondary osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.

And finally, “H” is for a history of cancer.

On physical examination there might be some clues that suggest a specific disorder as well.

For example, erythema might be due to an underlying infection or and inflammatory process like psoriatic arthritis.

On palpation, if there’s a midline, point of focal tenderness then that could be due to an infection, cancer, or fracture.


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