Lower urinary tract infection


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Lower urinary tract infection


Renal and ureteral disorders

Renal agenesis

Horseshoe kidney

Potter sequence











Renal tubular acidosis

Minimal change disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)


Membranous nephropathy

Lupus nephritis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Goodpasture syndrome

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

IgA nephropathy (NORD)

Lupus nephritis

Alport syndrome

Kidney stones


Acute pyelonephritis

Chronic pyelonephritis

Prerenal azotemia

Renal azotemia

Acute tubular necrosis

Postrenal azotemia

Renal papillary necrosis

Renal cortical necrosis

Chronic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Medullary cystic kidney disease

Medullary sponge kidney

Renal artery stenosis

Renal cell carcinoma


Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)

WAGR syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Bladder and urethral disorders

Posterior urethral valves

Hypospadias and epispadias

Vesicoureteral reflux

Bladder exstrophy

Urinary incontinence

Neurogenic bladder

Lower urinary tract infection

Transitional cell carcinoma

Non-urothelial bladder cancers

Renal system pathology review

Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review

Renal tubular defects: Pathology review

Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review

Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review

Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review

Renal failure: Pathology review

Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review

Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review

Urinary incontinence: Pathology review

Urinary tract infections: Pathology review

Kidney stones: Pathology review

Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review


Lower urinary tract infection


0 / 28 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 4 complete

High Yield Notes

5 pages


Lower urinary tract infection

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 67-year-old woman is currently postoperative day 5 after having an open cholecystectomy. She reports worsening subprapubic pain and malaise.  Her vital signs are 37 °C (98.6°F), pulse is 98/min, respirations are 14/min, blood pressure is 137/64 mmHg, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. Physical examination shows suprapubic tenderness on palpation as well as cloudy urine in her Foley catheter. Which of the following pathogens is most likely causative of this patient’s clinical presentation?  

External References

First Aid








Acute cystitis p. 618


acute bacterial p. 618, 625

squamous cell carcinoma risk p. 624

Dysuria p. 678

cystitis p. 179


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

With cystitis, cyst- refers to the bladder, and -itis refers to inflammation, therefore cystitis describes an inflamed bladder, which is usually the result of a bacterial infection, but also can result from fungal infections, chemical irritants, foreign bodies like kidney stones, as well as trauma.

Now a urinary tract infection, or UTI, is any infection of the urinary tract, which includes the upper portion of the tract—the kidneys and ureters, and the lower portion of the tract—the bladder and urethra.

So cystitis, when it’s caused by an infection, is a type of lower UTI.

Lower UTIs are almost always caused by an ascending infection, where bacteria typically moves from the rectal area to the urethra and then migrate up the urethra and into the bladder.

Having said that, on rare occasions, a descending infection can happen as well where bacteria starts in the blood or lymph and then goes to the kidney and makes its way down to the bladder and urethra.

Normally, urine is sterile, meaning bacteria doesn’t live there; the composition of urine, which has a high urea concentration and low pH, helps keep bacteria from setting up camp.

Also, though, the unidirectional flow in the act of urinating also helps to keep bacteria from invading the urethra and bladder.

Some bacteria, though, are better surviving in and resisting these conditions, and can stick to and colonize the bladder mucosa.


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  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2020" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2019)
  5. "Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis" Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America (2011)
  6. "Diagnosis and management of urinary infections in older people" Clinical Medicine (2011)
  7. "The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections" Nature Reviews Immunology (2015)
  8. "Urinary tract infections in women" European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology (2011)

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