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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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The term ‘lupus’ refers to systemic lupus erythematosus, ‘nephritis’ refers to the ‘nephron,’ the Greek word for kidney, and ‘itis’ means inflammation, so lupus nephritis refers to inflammation of the kidney that results from having systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, lungs, heart, central nervous system, and, of course, the kidneys.
In fact, about half of all individuals with lupus develop some form of lupus nephritis.
In lupus, what happens is that some cells have their DNA so badly damaged, that the cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis, and it dies. This produces all these little apoptotic bodies, and exposes the insides of the cell, including parts of the nucleus, like DNA, histones, and other proteins, to the rest of the body.
Now in lupus the immune system is more likely to think that cellular parts are foreign, or antigens, and since they’re from the nucleus, their referred to as nuclear antigens, and immune cells try to attack them.
Not only that though, individuals with lupus have less effective clearance, essentially they aren’t as good at getting rid of the apoptotic bodies and so they end up having more nuclear antigens floating around.
So as a result of all of this, B cells start producing antibodies against these pieces of nucleus, which are called antinuclear antibodies.
These antinuclear antibodies bind to nuclear antigens, forming antigen-antibody complexes, which drift away in the blood and deposit in various places including the kidneys.
These immune complexes can then initiate an inflammatory reaction, which is known as a type III hypersensitivity reaction.
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