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Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Strep)
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Strep)
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria)
Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever)
Yersinia pestis (Plague)
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)
Bordetella pertussis (Pertussis/Whooping cough)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis)
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species
Viral structure and functions
Herpes simplex virus
Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus
Respiratory syncytial virus
Human parainfluenza viruses
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Restrictive lung diseases
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Lung volumes and capacities
Changes in pressure-volume loops
Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Clinical (To be retired)
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Upper respiratory tract infection
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)
Yellow fever virus
Vaccinations: Clinical (To be retired)
Renal tubular acidosis
Minimal change disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
Chronic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Renal cell carcinoma
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Posterior urethral valves
Hypospadias and epispadias
Lower urinary tract infection
Transitional cell carcinoma
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Renal failure: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)
Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)
Poxvirus (Smallpox and Molluscum contagiosum)
Coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis
Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pneumocystis pneumonia)
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Antihistamines for allergies
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Superior vena cava syndrome
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Prostate disorders and cancer: Pathology review
Testicular and scrotal conditions: Pathology review
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rubeola p. 167, 178, 183
rubeola p. 167
rubeola p. 167
paramyxovirus p. 164, 166
presentation p. 716
unvaccinated children p. 183
vitamin A for p. 64
measles p. 166
measles p. 167
Tanner Marshall, MS
Measles is one of the most contagious infectious diseases, and remains a leading cause of death particularly among young children, especially in areas with low rates of vaccination.
Measles is also called rubeola, which can easily get confused with German measles which is also called rubella—similar sounding names but very different viruses.
Regular measles is caused by the measles virus, seriously, the species is the “measles virus”, of the genus Morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae.
The reason why this guy’s so contagious is that it’s airborne, and spreads via tiny liquid particles that get flung into the air when someone sneezes or coughs, and can live for up to two hours in that airspace or nearby surfaces.
If someone breathes in that air or touches a surface and then touches their eyes, their eyes, or their mouths, they can become infected.
Measles is so contagious that if one person has it, 90% of nearby non-immune people will also become infected.
Once the measles virus gets onto the mucosa of an unsuspecting person, it quickly starts to infect the epithelial cells in the trachea or bronchi.
Measles virus uses a protein on its surface called hemagglutinin, or just H protein, to bind to a target receptor on the host cell, which could be CD46, which is expressed on all nucleated human cells, CD150, aka signaling lymphocyte activation molecule or SLAM, which is found on immune cells like B or T cells, and antigen-presenting cells, or nectin-4, a cellular adhesion molecule.
Once bound, the fusion, or F protein helps the virus fuse with the membrane and ultimately get inside the cell.
Now this virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, and it’s also a negative sense, meaning it first has to be transcribed by RNA polymerase into a positive-sense mRNA strand.
After that it’s ready to be translated into viral proteins, wrapped in the cell’s lipid envelope, and sent out of the cell as a newly made virus.
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