00:00 / 00:00
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
0 / 27 complete
0 / 10 complete
A Student's Meningitis Story
Common Causes of Meningitis: Adolescent and Adult (6 - 60 Years Old)
Common Causes of Meningitis: Children (6 Months - 6 Years)
Common Causes of Meningitis: Elderly (60+ Years Old)
Common Causes of Meningitis: Newborn (0-6 Months)
meningitis p. 177
meningitis p. 177, 727
meningitis caused by p. 177
ceftriaxone p. 186
chloramphenicol p. 189
coccidioidomycosis p. 149
common causes p. 177
Cryptococcus neoformans p. , 150
CSF findings in p. 177
fluconazole p. 195
flucytosine p. 195
Haemophilus influenzae p. , 140
headaches with p. 534
HIV-positive adults p. 174
Listeria monocytogenes p. , 137
meningococci p. 140
mumps as cause p. 167
in neonates p. 181
rifamycin prophylaxis p. 193
Streptococcus pneumoniae p. , 134
Streptococcus agalactiae p. , 135
tuberculosis p. 138
unvaccinated children p. 183
meningitis p. 183
meningitis in p. 137, 181
bacterial meningitis p. 727
With meningitis, mening- refers to the meninges which are three protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, and -itis refers to inflammation; so meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges.
More specifically, it refers to the inflammation of the two inner layers which are called the leptomeninges.
The outer layer of the meninges is the dura mater, the middle layer is the arachnoid mater, and the inner layer is the pia mater.
These last two, the arachnoid and pia maters, are the leptomeninges.
Between the leptomeninges there’s the subarachnoid space, which houses cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF.
CSF is a clear, watery liquid which is pumped around the spinal cord and brain, cushioning them from impact and bathing them in nutrients.
In one microliter or cubic millimeter, there are normally a few white blood cells, up to 5.
If we look at a bigger sample, like say a decilitre, then around 70% of those will be lymphocytes, 30% monocytes, and just a few polymorphonuclear cells -- PMNs -- like neutrophils.
That same volume will contain some proteins, as well, about 15-50 mg as well as some glucose, about 45-100 mg, which is close to two thirds of the glucose we’d find in the same volume of blood.
The CSF is held under a little bit of pressure, below 200 mm of H2O, which is just under 15 mm of mercury -- which is less than a fifth of the mean arterial pressure.
Now at any given moment, there’s about 150 ml of CSF in the body.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.