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Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis
Osteomalacia and rickets
Paget disease of bone
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
Inclusion body myopathy
Degenerative disc disease
Spinal disc herniation
Achilles tendon rupture
Anterior cruciate ligament injury
Iliotibial band syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Patellofemoral pain syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Radial head subluxation (Nursemaid elbow)
Rotator cuff tear
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Limited systemic sclerosis (CREST syndrome)
Mixed connective tissue disease
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
Osgood-Schlatter disease (traction apophysitis)
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
Back pain: Pathology review
Bone disorders: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Gout and pseudogout: Pathology review
Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review
Myalgias and myositis: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: Pathology review
Scleroderma: Pathology review
Seronegative and septic arthritis: Pathology review
Sjogren syndrome: Pathology review
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): Pathology review
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The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilage cushions found in the knee joint.
Normally, there’s the medial and lateral menisci between the femur and the tibia.
So, a meniscus tear, more commonly known as torn knee cartilage, is when one of the menisci of the knee is torn.
This usually occurs due to trauma during contact sports.
The knee is a complex joint, actually it’s a combination of three joints.
These are the femoropatellar joint, between the femur and patella, and the two tibiofemoral joints which are formed by the bony prominences, also called the condyles of the tibia and the femur.
Between the femoral and tibial condyles, there’re the medial and lateral menisci.
The menisci act to absorb compressive force, which can reach up to three times the body weight while walking!
In addition, the menisci have a cup-shaped surface which provides a deeper place for the condyles to fit in improving joint’s stability.
Next, the knee joint is supported by a number of ligaments.
So, within the joint space, there's the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, which runs from the anterior middle edge of the tibia to the lateral condyle of the femur, and the posterior cruciate ligament, or PCL, that runs from the middle posterior edge of the tibia to the medial condyle of the femur.
Now, outside the joint space, we’ve got one collateral ligament between the femur and the tibia on each side of the joint, which are the lateral collateral ligament, or LCL, and the medial collateral ligament, or MCL.
Meniscus tear is when one or both of the menisci of the knee joint are torn. Acute tears usually occur in athletes during contact sports, when the menisci are violently compressed. Chronic tears can also occur, often in older people due to wear and tear changes of menisci. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and stiffness, and the diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, physical exam with an MRI for confirmation. Treatment can be conservative, or by open or arthroscopic surgery.
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