00:00 / 00:00
Apnea of prematurity
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
Pulmonary changes at high altitude and altitude sickness
Congenital pulmonary airway malformation
Superior vena cava syndrome
Meconium aspiration syndrome
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
Sudden infant death syndrome
Transient tachypnea of the newborn
Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Restrictive lung diseases
Retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses
Upper respiratory tract infection
Apnea, hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review
Lung cancer and mesothelioma: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pleural effusion, pneumothorax, hemothorax and atelectasis: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Restrictive lung diseases: Pathology review
Tuberculosis: Pathology review
Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that attacks the mesothelium, which is a thin membrane made of epithelial cells that lines all of the body’s organs as well as body spaces like the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity.
Mesothelioma most often develops in the lining of the lungs and pleural cavity, and is well known for its association with the carcinogen asbestos.
In fact, the late Hollywood actor Steve McQueen is well-known for having developed mesothelioma after years of asbestos exposure while in the military.
The vast majority of mesothelioma cases stem from asbestos exposure.
Asbestos is a mineral that was widely used as construction material in everything from paint to insulation to roofing tiles because it has strong fibers that were resistant to fire and served as good insulation.
Asbestos fibers are jagged in shape, and extremely tiny - about 500 times finer than a human hair.
If those tiny asbestos fibers get inhaled over time, they make their way into the interstitial space of the lungs and then slowly make their way over to the epithelial cells of the visceral or parietal pleura - both of which are layers of mesothelium.
The microscopic, jagged asbestos fibers are so small that they can get tangled up with the cell’s chromosomes.
At that point, they can damage the DNA causing a variety of mutations, which ultimately allow those epithelial cells to divide uncontrollably, turning into a tumor.
Over time, small cancerous growths called mesothelial plaques start to cover the visceral pleura over the lungs and the parietal pleural under the chest wall.
Interestingly, these growths start to express a lot of calretinin, a calcium-binding protein, involved in regulating calcium levels within the cell - this is something that helps to distinguish mesotheliomas from other types of tumors.
In addition to affecting the lungs and pleural lining, asbestos fibers can also end up in the stomach if saliva containing the material or mucus from the airways is swallowed.
Latest on COVID-19
Nurse Practitioner (NP)
Physician Assistant (PA)
Create custom content
Raise the Line Podcast
Copyright © 2024 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
Terms and Conditions
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.