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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Acoustic neuroma (schwannoma)
Adult brain tumors
Pediatric brain tumors
Transient ischemic attack
Cavernous sinus thrombosis
Spinocerebellar ataxia (NORD)
Tethered spinal cord syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Central pontine myelinolysis
JC virus (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy)
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)
Restless legs syndrome
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (NORD)
Cauda equina syndrome
Treponema pallidum (Syphilis)
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Concussion and traumatic brain injury
Spinal muscular atrophy
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome
Adult brain tumors: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Cerebral vascular disease: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Demyelinating disorders: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Movement disorders: Pathology review
Neurocutaneous disorders: Pathology review
Neuromuscular junction disorders: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
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Migraine Patient Testimonials - Wide Range of Symptoms
Migraine Headache Treatments
Migraine Headaches Signs and Symptoms
migraine headaches p. 534
TCAs as, prophylaxis p. 595
butorphanol for p. 569
hormonal contraception contraindication p. 677
triptans for p. 564
for migraine headaches p. 534
Headaches are a type of terrible pain in the head and neck, and there are two main types.
The first are called primary headaches, and they’re more common. These are chronic or recurrent headaches, that account for over 90% of all headaches.
Some examples, are migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches.
The second type are called secondary headaches, and these are acute headaches from a specific underlying cause like a serious head injury or a brain tumor.
So normally, throughout the body, there are special neurons that act as pain receptors.
These neurons convert a painful stimulus into an electrical signal that conveys the feeling of “pain” to the brain.
The brain itself does not have pain receptors, but nearby tissues in the head and neck like the blood vessels, meninges, and muscles do have pain receptors.
These pain receptors might be stimulated by a variety of things such as blood vessel spasm like in vasculitis, increased pressure like from a tumor, inflammation like in meningitis, or increased muscle tension like in temporomandibular disorder.
That helps explain the pain in secondary headaches.
Now, in primary headaches the exact mechanisms are unknown.
Tension headaches are the most common primary headache.
It’s called a tension headache because it feels like a band squeezing down on the head applying constant pressure or tension on it.
The pain is mild to moderate, can last a few hours, and usually there are no associated symptoms.
Tension headaches are usually triggered by stress, lack of sleep, and dehydration - imagine being late to work after a night of drinking heavily and not sleeping much.
Migraines are the second most common primary headache.
They’re often preceded by symptoms like irritability, depression, and fatigue that can begin hours to days before the headache itself.
Sometimes there can be an aura where people experience strange smells, lights, visual disturbances, or even hallucinations before the onset of the migraine.
The migraine itself usually feels like a pounding or pulsating, typically localized to one side of the head and can last from hours to days.
As if this was not bad enough, these headaches tend to come with nausea and vomiting, irritability, and pain or discomfort with lights, sounds, and smells called photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia, respectively.
During childhood, individuals can have nausea and vomiting without the headaches; and that’s called an abdominal migraine.
After a migraine is over, it can leave people feeling sore at the location of the pain and generally fatigued.
To remember the main features of migraines, you can use the mnemonic POUND, where P stands for pulsatile headache, O stands for one-day duration, U stands for unilateral, N for nausea, and D for disabling.
Although the underlying mechanism causing migraines isn’t well understood, there are some clues.
Concentrations of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, increase during the aura, triggering vasoconstriction, and then decrease to lower-than-normal levels during the migraine attack, triggering vasodilation. This change in the blood vessel size may be a trigger for pain receptors, causing the headache.
A migraine is a type of headache that presents with recurrent episodes of (usually) unilateral, throbbing headaches. It may be accompanied by sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting, and a preference for a quiet environment.
Sometimes there can be an aura where people experience strange smells, lights, visual disturbances, or even hallucinations before the onset of the migraine. The cause of migraine is not yet known, but it is believed to have a genetic predisposition, and risk factors such as alcohol, hormonal changes in women, fasting, disorganized sleeping patterns, etc.
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